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Biology HL IA - Transpiration lab report

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Introduction

Biology HL Candidate name: Ieva Drulyte Date: ___________________ Investigation into the transpiration rate of maple dependency on the area of leaves DCP, CE Introduction Transpiration is the evaporation of water particles from plant surfaces, especially from the surface openings, or stomata, on leaves. Stomatal transpiration accounts for most of the water loss by a plant, but some direct evaporation also takes place through the surfaces of the epidermal cells of the leaves. The amount of water given off depends somewhat upon how much water the roots of the plant have absorbed. It also depends upon such environmental conditions as sunlight, humidity, winds and temperature. A plant should not be transplanted in full sunshine because it may lose too much water and wilt before the damaged roots can supply enough water. Transpiration occurs as the sun warms the water inside the blade. The warming changes much of the water into water vapor. This gas can then escape through the stomata. Transpiration helps cool the inside of the leaf because the escaping vapor has absorbed heat. Design Aim: to investigate the effect of altering the leaves area on the rate of transpiration of Acer (Maple). Hypothesis: with decreasing area of leaves provided, the rate of transpiration would also decrease as transpiration occurs through stomata which are located commonly on the lower epidermis of leaves. ...read more.

Middle

of leaves 0,06 0,065 0,060 0,060 0,060 0,061 0,00224 No leaves 0,02 0,025 0,025 0,020 0,020 0,022 0,00274 In order to found transpiration rate per unit of surface area of leave, leaves, which were cut during every reduction of total surface area of leaves of a branch, were scanned and their surface area was calculated using a computer program ImageJ. Results were: area of first third - 153722 mm2; second third - 196203 mm2; last third - 179602 mm2. Hence, the surface area of leaves provided at every step was calculated by subtracting results above from the total surface area of three thirds of leaves. For example: Area of leaves after first reduction = total area - first third = (153722+196203+179602) - 153722 � 2/3 of leaves = 375805 mm2 = 0,376 m2. When the surface area of leaves was calculated, the rate of transpiration was found for every surface area of leaves tested by dividing average amount of water transpired per 1 min to the surface area of leaves in that step. Table 3 Processed data; transpiration rates: mL/min and mL/m2min1. Area of leaves Average amount of H20 transpired per 5 min (mL, �0,005) Average amount of H20 transpired per 1 min (mL, �0,005) ...read more.

Conclusion

However, one should be very careful not to harm leaves, hence, their xylems. Third, the results that transpiration at some level occurred even when all leaves were cut might come from inappropriate length of periods for which the plant was left to rest. A method improvement would be to measure a volume absorbed in every 10 minutes for an hour minimum and to perform an experiment continuously a few days. Finally, the method could be discussed at terms of precision and accuracy. This includes already mentioned aspect of counting area of surface of leaves and, what's more, raw data recording. As a pipette taken was only of 1 mL capacity, sometimes it was really hard to decide the exact amount of water absorbed. Pipette with smaller graduations should be used, however, plant would transpire water from pipette more quickly and this would lead to the re-filling the mechanism, which could result in the errors in the results as well. As these are so called minor improvements for the method of investigation, a few suggestions could be made for other possible experimental designs, for example, more types of plants could be used or other environmental conditions such as temperature or humidity could be altered together with the surface area of leaves in order to investigate more precisely the effects on transpiration rate. ?? ?? ?? ?? 1 ...read more.

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