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Biology Investigation - Comparing the populations of two plant species in same area.

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Introduction

´╗┐Mohamad Zulhilmi bin Azmi Biology HL 2012 Comparing the populations of two plant species in same area Introduction: Mimosa Pudica or also called sensitive plant or touch-me-not, is a prostrate to semi erect herb, 0.3 to 0.8 m tall, often forming a small compact bush about 0.6 m tall; branches glabrous or pubescent, heavily armed with broad-based, black-tipped recurved thorns. Leaves are small, sensitive, bipinnate; leaflets about 16 pairs; petioles up to 4 cm long. Inflorescence of axillary headlike spikes, flowers pinkish, sessile. Pods usually in a dense cluster, 10 to 15 mm long and 4 mm wide, flat, segmented, somewhat constricted between the articulations, one-seeded segments[1]. Being called as Grass seed and Love grass, Chrysopogon Aciculatus (Retz) Trin is a vigorous creeping grass with stout, tough rhizomes, the culms ascending to 45 cm. Inflorescence a small panicle, 7.5-10 cm long, with numerous slender branches. Spikelet is narrow. Awn is bristly, short and fine. The branches at first ascend almost vertically, spread obliquely at flowering and then bend upward again at fruiting. Each branch has three spikelet at its tip, one sessile and two pedicels[2]. An experiment will be carrying out to compare the population sizes between these two species which live in the same area using quadrant sampling technique. ...read more.

Middle

Trin sp 3. The result was recorded in the table 4. Repeat the experiment 9 times in the same pre-determined 25m2 area to get the mean value. Safety and Ethics: 1. Do not touch, disturb or killed any living creature in the area. This measure was taken to prevent the creature from being endangered besides avoid us from being harm by the creatures. 2. Handle and throw the quadrant slowly with care to avoid damage on the quadrant. Data Collection and Processing Raw data: Mimosa Pudica Chrysopogon aciculatus (Retz) Trin Population 1 Population 2 Population 3 Population 4 Population 5 Population 6 Population 7 Population 8 Population 9 Population 10 Areal Coverage/m2 (±0.01m2) Quadrant Mimosa Pudica Chrysopogon aciculatus (Retz) Trin 1 0.33 0.10 2 0.29 0.09 3 0.31 0.07 4 0.30 0.07 5 0.27 0.11 6 0.27 0.08 7 0.43 0.05 8 0.24 0.07 9 0.15 0.13 10 0.23 0.10 Processed data: Areal Coverage/m2 (±0.01m2) Quadrant Mimosa Pudica Chrysopogon Aciculatus (Retz) Trin 1 0.33 0.10 2 0.29 0.09 3 0.31 0.07 4 0.30 0.07 5 0.27 0.11 6 0.27 0.08 7 0.43 0.05 8 0.24 0.07 9 0.15 0.13 10 0.23 0.10 Further processing Mean 0.090117 0.023594 Standard Deviation 0.055854 0.014623 95% Confidence level 0.034618 0.009063 T-test,t 0.000375 Degrees of freedom= (10-1)+(10-1)=18 At confidence level of 95%, the critical value for 18 degree of freedom is 2.101. ...read more.

Conclusion

The use of camera is not really effective. Under sunlight, it is quite hard to take the pictures of the quadrant because the exposure can affect the quality of the picture taken. When the pictures are affected, it is hard to calculate the areal coverage of the two species. The number of quadrants is little. The minimum quadrants produced a not really clear result by also affecting the mean and standard deviation. The range of data can also affected the t?test value. Suggested Improvements: In order to reduce the error from unclear 25m2 pre?determined area, we should use string and nails to mark the area before the experiment. Measuring tape can be use the measure the length and width of the area which is 5m x 5m. By doing this, the probability for throwing the quadrants outside the pre?determined area will be little or zero. Do not use the camera for taking the picture of the quadrant. Do it manually. The areal coverage of the two species will be clearer and can be count easier using this method. The errors can be reduced. The number of quadrants shall be increase to 30 quadrants. This can minimise the error on the result whereas the mean and standard deviation will be more accurate. Large range of the data can produce a better t?test value which can show a clearer significance difference between the two species. ...read more.

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