• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Cardiovascular System revision questions and answers.

Extracts from this document...


Chapter 13 SQ3R - Cardiovascular System 13.1 The Blood Vessels What are the three types of blood vessels and how do they differ? In what direction is blood traveling in each? The three types of blood vessels are arteries, capillaries, and veins. Arteries carry blood away from the heart to the capillaries, whereas veins carry blood from the capillaries to the heart. Capillaries, which are thin blood vessels, act as the medium which permits exchange of material with the tissues of an organism. Arteries are made up of smaller components known as arterioles as are veins (which are called venules). In what type of blood vessel does exchange take place? Exchange of material (such as waste and nutrients) takes place in capillaries as they serve the cells of the organism. 13.2 The Heart The right side of the heart pumps blood to what body area? The left side of the heart pumps blood to what body area? The right side of the heart pumps blood to the lungs to filter the O2-poor blood (rid of CO2 and adds oxygen) whereas the left side of the heart pumps blood to the rest of the body so as to provide nourishment (it contains O2-rich blood). What is the path of blood through the heart? O2-poor blood from the superior and inferior vena cava (originating from the upper and lower extremities of the body) ...read more.


which tends to cause water to move from tissue fluid to the blood and blood pressure which causes water to move in the opposite direction. At the arterial end of a capillary blood pressure outweighs the osmotic pressure and thus this is where water exits. In the middle of the capillary where the BP is lower, two forces essential cancel each other out allowing for no net movement of water. Solutes diffuse according to their concentration gradient (nutrients like glucose and oxygen diffuse out of the capillary whereas waste like carbon dioxide diffuses in). These substances that leave the capillary contribute to tissue fluid (the fluid between the body's cells) which contains all components of plasma (with lesser amounts of protein). The venous end of a capillary, as you'd expect, is where you have osmotic pressure greater than BP and thus you have water moving into the capillary (enough to virtually cancel out the amount that left). However, some excess tissue fluid is always collected by the lymphatic capillaries and stored as lymph which is later returned to the system venous blood when the major lymphatic cessels enter the subclavian veins. 13.5 Cardiovascular Disorders What are some common disorders associated with the cardiovascular system? Some common disorders associated with the cardiovascular system are atherosclerosis (accumulation of soft masses of fatty materials beneath the inner linings of arteries - plaque), stroke (bursting of blockage of small ...read more.


4. Does the heart quit beating if the SA node fails? The AV node also generates impulses to contract, so although the heart does not beat as rapidly when the SA node fails, it continues to beat. 5. What is a portal system? Give an example of one in the human body. A portal system begins and ends with a bed of capillaries. An example of one in the human body is the hepatic portal system that carries blood from the small intestine to the liver rather than into general circulation. 6. Is arterial blood pressure constant throughout the body? Blood pressure is not constant throughout the body but instead decreases with distance from the left ventricle. 7. What is the primary function of red blood cells and white blood cells? Red blood cells contain hemoglobin and function to distribute oxygen throughout the body. The various types of white blood cells participate in defending the body against disease. 8. What portions of the blood participate in clotting? Blood clotting involves two plasma proteins, prothrombin and fibrinogen, along with platelets. 9. What are the two primary disorders that lead to stroke, heart attack, and aneurysm? Hypertension and atherosclerosis may lead to stroke, heart attack, and aneurysm. 10. What are the recommendations for maintaining a healthy cardiovascular system? A heart-healthy diet, regular exercise, proper weight, and not smoking are recommended for a healthy cardiovascular system. ?? ?? ?? ?? Irfan Rajani Block: E 08/02/17 ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our International Baccalaureate Biology section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related International Baccalaureate Biology essays

  1. biology extended essay - How different diets: vegetarian, vegan and a meat centered diet ...

    Most products produced by animals such as eggs, fish, meat, poultry contain high amounts of proteins, consuming these foods help supply the body with adequate and sufficient amounts of all the amino acids needed by the body. A meat centered diet contains significant amounts of zinc which is important for a healthy immune system.

  2. Cell Membrane Structure and Function - revision questions and answers.

    In an isotonic solution, a cell neither gains nor loses water, whereas in a hypotonic solution, a cell gains water. In a hypertonic solution, on the other hand, a cell loses water and the cytoplasm shrinks. 4.4 Transport by Carrier Proteins What is the purpose of carrier proteins in the plasma membrane?

  1. What is the effect of different body positions i.e. lying down, sitting and standing ...

    and standing position for the systolic and diastolic (mmHg) * A positive value for the difference means that the pressure in the position was higher than sitting and a negative value means that the pressure was lower in that position compared to the control (sitting position) *N.B as this is a graphical representation of the difference between the averages

  2. How does the distribution of Plantago maior differ?

    4.1 14 1 2.3 15 3 3.4 8, near the pathway 1 4 4.4 2 5 4.1 3 8 5.1 4 2 3.6 5 3 5.1 6 4 4.8 7 4 4 8 3 5 9 4 6.1 10 5 4.2 11 4 4.1 12 3 4.3 13 4 4.5

  1. LAB-What infuences blood pressure

    Size greater than 102 cm signifies as well the obesity, hence possible health problems. But these indicators vary for males and females. Females have lower value (circa 85 cm), and males have more than 100, as it was given above.

  2. An investigation on the changes in tidal volume and vital capacity of lungs before ...

    standard deviation. Graph 4. Mean vital capacity for all participants before exercise / mean vital capacity after exercise (100) incl. standard deviation. Student?s t-test To determine whether the differences in the data found from before and after exercise are due to random fluctuation, a paired t-test must be conducted.

  1. Overview of Cells & Energy (Revision)

    Electrons are recorded on a photographic plate, which forms an image on screen. Advantages or electron microscopes: Magnifies over 500,000x Resolving power for biological specimin around 1nm 3-D view instead of one. Interior view See organelles than cannot be observed w/ light microscope.

  2. Cell Respiration (Revision)

    the way in which ATP is formed from ADP and phosphate as electrons pass down the electron transport chain. The process is powered by a gradient of protons, H+ ions, established across the inner mitochondrial membrane. This is known as chemiosmotic coupling.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work