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Cell Organelles summary table

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Introduction

Cell Organelles - summary table Name of organelle (shape and size) Structure Function Diagram Plant / animal cell Ribosome (20-30nm) The smallest organelle in the cell (visible only with the electron microscope). It is made of ribosomal RNA and protein. Larger and smaller subunits. It is involved in a process called translation in which proteins are formed. Both Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) ROUGH It's a system with of membranes within the cytoplasm, which enclose a space known as the lumen. It has ribosomes on its surface. It is involved in the production of secretory proteins. Both Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) SMOOTH It's a system with of membranes within the cytoplasm, which enclose a space known as the lumen. ...read more.

Middle

Ex.: protein +carbohydrates --> glycoprotein Both Lysosome (25nm - 1um) It's vesicle that contain many different digestive enzymes (digestive system of the cell). It breaks down all the major groups of macromolecules in the cell. It's function include the digestion of worn out organelles and matter taken in the cell. Another function - destruction of cells. Ex.: blood cells engulf bacteria. Animal Mitochondrion (sing.) Mitochondria (pl.) (1 mm to 4 mm in length and 0.2 mm to 1.0 mm in diameter. ) Structure contains - double membrane (inner and outer), cristae, which increase the surface area, matrix (it contains ribosomes (it synthesize the proteins coded for by the mitochondrial DNA) ...read more.

Conclusion

Double membrane (inner and outer), thylakoids (with photosynthetic pigments - cholorphyll), which structure granums, stroma. It has its own ribosomes, loop of DNA. Function - photosynthesis. Plants Sap Vacuole (no basic shape or size) It's filled mostly of water. Tonoplast - its membrane. It is used to store many things in different plant cells (ex.: organic compounds, ions, waste products, pigments, water etc.). Also, it takes up water and pushes against the cell wall, which prevents further uptake of water in the cell (turgor pressure). Plants Cell Wall (10 nm thick) It's made of microfibrils cellulose. It's a rigid structure that supports the plant cell and gives it a specific shape. It provides a strong completely permeable boundary around the outside of the plant cell. (everything can pass through) Plants ...read more.

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