• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Cystic Fibrosis Research

Extracts from this document...


What is Gene Mutation? Making a permanent change in the DNA sequence is known as "gene mutation." The mutation changes the allele that is established in the population to a rare and abnormal variant. Gene mutation can occur in two ways, either by being inherited from a parent or they can be acquired during a person's lifetime. If gene mutations are inherited from a parent then it is called hereditary mutations, meaning that the gene mutations are also present in egg and sperm cells. In virtually every cell in the body this type of mutation is present. Ultraviolet radiations from the sun or a mistake made during cell division are examples of factors that can cause acquired mutation to occur in the DNA of individual cells. This type of mutation cannot be passed on the next generation. What is Cystic Fibrosis? A human disease or a health problem? [Figure 1 - United States National Library of Medicine] Affecting mainly the lungs and digestive system, cystic fibrosis is a hereditary disease meaning that it is an inherited disease. Cystic fibrosis is also known as mucoviscidosis. Frequent lung infections occur because the immune system is less competent and thick mucus is produced. ...read more.


This gene is necessary to produce sweat, digestive juices and mucus and its gene product functions as a chloride channel. In almost all people born with cystic fibrosis, one gene is received from each parent. If both parents have cystic fibrosis then the child has a 1 in 4 chance of having the disease. It is possible for doctors to perform tests during pregnancy so that parents can find out more about the chances that their child will have cystic fibrosis. What are the symptoms of Cystic Fibrosis? By the time a child is three years old they have usually been diagnosed by their doctor but if it is a milder form of cystic fibrosis then it is possible for it not to be diagnosed until the person reaches the teen years. [Figure 3 - Human Diseases and Conditions] Symptoms of Cystic Fibrosis: - Frequent lung infections [Figure 3] - Persistent cough - Persistent panting - Failure to gain weight - Small body size - Tiredness - Poor height growth - Frequent sinus infections - Toes and fingers may become rounded and enlarged [Figure 4 and 5] [Figure 4 - Podiatry Wordpress] [Figure 5 - Med Help] How common is Cystic Fibrosis? ...read more.


According to "Nemours Foundation," now 40% of cystic fibrosis carriers in the United States are 18 years or older. Since the identification of the gene that causes cystic fibrosis, scientists have been trying to replace abnormal cystic fibrosis genes with normal ones. Delivering the normal gene into the cell of a cystic fibrosis carrier is one of the methods that scientists are working on. Fighting lung infections and different ways of bypassing the defective protein is another method that scientists are experimenting with. Lung transplants have extended the lives of carriers in some cases. Gene therapy is the main research that is being conducted to find a cure. Current treatments aim to control the symptoms by improving nutrition to help digestion (enzyme therapy) and reducing chest infections with frequent physiotherapy. There is a range of other possible treatments: - Antibiotics to counter lung infections. - Dietary vitamin supplements (especially A, D and E). - Asthma therapy. - Insulin for diabetes. - Lung or heart and lung transplant operation. For people to overcome fertility problems counseling is recommended in order to help them cope with the psychological aspects of the illness. Children should be vaccinated against measles, mumps and rubella, diptheria, tetanus and whooping cough. They should also be vaccinated against flu and pneumococcus to help prevent chest infections. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our International Baccalaureate Biology section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related International Baccalaureate Biology essays

  1. Gene Therapy

    The most commonly used and the simplest virus used for this technique is a known as a retrovirus. The characteristics of the retrovirus greatly affect its success rate. The perfect retrovirus was created by a doctor named Richard Mulligan of MIT.

  2. Independent Research Project Vital Lung Capacity

    As for the technique on using the spirometer, the participant must exhale as hard and as fast as possible whilst making sure that all the air goes through the spirometer. Procedure: Procedurally, the experiment partakers must follow a few guidelines in order to be able to effectively collect data, individually, for the experiment.

  1. Molecular Genetics: differentiating between various molecular databases

    It helps find corresponding genes in different organisms. Proteomics is the study of the identities, structures, interactions and abundances of all organisms. The process involves separating the desired proteins into an individual ones and then with the use of bioinformatics, comparing them with to a unique protein.

  2. Biology Extended Essay 2009

    of orange juice by counting the numbers of drop of orange juice required for the dye to turn colorless.18 Aim: Investigate the differences of Vitamin C content between freshly squeezed orange juice and the processed orange juice regarding six leading Australian brands of juice available in supermarket.

  1. Biology- Extended essay. For this research, I investigated the effects of DDT and ...

    Toxicology is the science of poisons; it deals with the study of economic poisons, their effects, mechanisms of action and metabolism of toxicants in test animals. The two pollutants for which the test will be conducted are DDT (Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane) and local textile dyes (Azo-Dyes).

  2. Extended Essay- How is production of carbon dioxide (CO2) during digestion affected by the ...

    are broken, and two monosaccharides remain. Beta bonds are difficult for the body to break down, whereas alpha bonds are digestible. Sucrose, maltose and lactose are disaccharides, or double sugars. Glucose and fructose are bound by an alpha bond to form sucrose. Sucrose is found in cane sugar and is refined to make table sugar.

  1. Biology Research Paper-Gigantism is a condition characterized by abnormal or excessive growth and height ...

    The size of the adenoma directly affects the signs and symptoms experienced by the individual. Larger adenomas can damage the function of the normal pituitary gland causing failure of secretion of other hormones (hypopituitarism). In some cases, puberty may be delayed if pressure from the adenoma on the pituitary gland

  2. Female Fertility Problems Essay

    They are the anatomical problem that lead to infertility. According to C.Health (Common Reasons for Infertility) ?A woman?s fallopian tubes get get blocked due to past infections, such as pelvic inflammatory disease, or by abdominal surgery. Sexually transmitted diseases can also causes blockages.? The fallopian tube (also known as the oviduct)

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work