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Determine the energy content of different types of Seed: Compare the calorie content of different seeds.

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Introduction

Determine the energy content of different types of Seed: Compare the calorie content of different seeds. Within a seed there is a significant amount of stored energy, in the form of lipid and carbohydrate. The energy stored in a seed is measured in joules 1 Joule is 2.390 x 10� calories. When a seed is digested a person can be aware of how much energy they are consuming by having access to the seeds calorie content. Seeds also benefit the consumer in other ways; 100 grams of sunflower seeds also contains 24 g of protein and 7.1mg of iron�. Pumpkin seeds (based on 100 grams) contain 29 grams of protein, 11.2 mg of iron and 1144 mg of phosphorus�.A method of measuring calories can be found if the joule content is converted. To conclude, in order to determine the energy content of different seeds the joule content must be found. 1 joule is 2.390 x 10� calories of stored food 4.184 Joules is needed to raise 1cm� of water by 1�C (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joule) Hypothesis: H1: Change in energy content in different seeds will cause a different change in temperature of water (When the seed is used as an energy source) H0: Change in energy content in different seeds will have no effect on the temperature of water. (When the seed is used as an energy source) ...read more.

Middle

then the flame or energy release will not effect the temperature of the H�O as much as it will have longer to lose energy before it affects the H�O. The clamp and stand holds the test tube above the surface of the seeds which are placed on the wire gauze, on tripod. Then a Bunsen burner is used manually to burn the seeds until lit then put under the test tube and timed for 30 seconds. We controlled the time in which the seeds are able to heat the H�O as, if the seeds had a longer or shorter time period there would be a stronger or weaker effect on the temperature on the H�O. Equipment list: * 2g of pumpkin seeds x5 * 2g of sunflower seeds x5 * Bunsen burner * Thermometer x2 * Tray x2 * Test-tube x2 * 20ml of Water x10 * Clamp & stand x2 Results: A table showing the calculated data Type of mass Average �C change Calories per gram Pumpkin seed +5.2 0.0104 Sunflower seed +10.4 0.0208 Results of Mann-Whitney U test This table shows the components to the calculations of the statistical test shown in Appendix 3. N1 5 N2 5 U1 21 U2 4 Level of significance P = 0.05 Critical table value 2 The null hypothesis is accepted (P > 0.05) ...read more.

Conclusion

Even when comparing the protein and iron content of both seeds there is no significant difference. If the experiment was to be more effective, the seeds should be tested in the same form. All of the seeds should be crushed to a very similar consistency to therefore compare each seeds kinetic energy more accurately. Different seeds should be tested in order to see whether the experimental hypothesis can be accepted. Appendices Appendix 1 A table showing the Data collected from the experiment (Raw data) Type of seed Experiment1(�C) Experiment2(�C) Experiment3(�C) Experiment4(�C) Experimen5(�C) Pumpkin +2 +2 +9 +4 +9 Sunflower +5 +15 +8 +13 +11 Appendix 2 Example 1 Average= sum of �C change / number of experiments Example 2 Calories per gram = (Average �C change * 8.368)*(2.390 * 10�(-4)) ������������������������������������������������������������ 2 Appendix 3 Mann-Whitney U Test Step 1 Pumpkin seed 2 2 4 9 9 Sunflower seed 5 8 11 13 15 Change in temperature Rank (R1) 1.5 1.5 3 6.5 6.5 8 9 Pumpkin seed 2 2 4 9 9 Sunflower seed 5 8 11 13 15 Rank (R2) 4 5 10 Step 2 ?R1 = 36 ?R2 = 19 Step 3 Pumpkin seed U1 = n1 x n2 + 1/2 n2 (n2+1) - ?R2 = 5 x 5 + 1/2 5(5+1) - 19 = 25 + 15 - 19 U1 = 21 Sunflower seed U2 = n1 x n2 + 1/2 n1 (n1+1) - ?R1 U2 = 4 Dachinii Lee-Hewitt � http://vegsoc.org/info/nutsseeds.html � http://www.calorie-counter.net/nuts-calories/pine-nuts.htm ...read more.

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