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Determining the rate of action of an enzyme

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Introduction

Determining the rate of action of an enzyme Skills to be assessed: Design, Data Collection & Processing and Conclusion & Evaluation Design Aim: The purpose of this investigation is to experimentally determine the effect a change in liver surface area will have on the rate of action (measured in oxygen production) of the enzyme (Catalase) on the substrate Hydrogen Peroxide (H2O2). Background: The human body functions due to the action of enzymes which speed up chemical reactions within the body by lowering the activation energy of a reaction. Hydrogen Peroxide is produced in large amounts within the human body, most notably within the liver. Hydrogen Peroxide is a by product of various reactions within the body. It is a toxic chemical and in high concentrations is poisonous to the body systems. Its prolonged presence would ultimately destroy the body's cells by inhibiting metabolic reactions. As a result, the body must find a way of ridding itself of this detrimental Hydrogen Peroxide. It does this through the implementation of the enzyme Catalase. Catalase, like all enzymes adheres to the induced fit relationship between Hydrogen Peroxide and itself. Accordingly it acts only on H2O2 initiating a reaction, via lowering the activation energy, that results in the breakdown of this harmful substance into harmless substances which can be either used or excreted by the body. The Hydrogen Peroxide breaks down to form water and oxygen. ...read more.

Middle

* These bubbles quickly floated to the top where they began forming larger bubbles with the assistance of the Detergent. * The detergent wall of bubbles began to climb the side of the test tube and eventually filled up in the center. * The bubbles were murky grey, and had a thicker than normal texture. * As time progressed the liver seemed visibly softer, though the size remained the same * No other physical characteristics observed throughout reaction Data Processing Sample Calculation Average: Mean(x) = ?(x) (min) / (Number of x) Where Mean= the average value of the selected data X= data values ?= the total sum of the data values Number of x= the number of values in the x data series e.g. Mean = (17 + 20 + 25) / 3 = 63/3 = 21mL Sample Calculation Rate of Reaction Speed = Distance / Time Speed (mL/sec) = ? Amount of Total Volume of Solution (mL) / ? Time(sec) Calculation [Whole Average] Rate = (56 - 25)/ 120 = 31 / 120 = 0.26mL/sec Sample Calculation Experimental Total Volume Total Volume O2 Detergent bubbles= Total Volume solution - Original Volume solution Total= Total Solution - 25 Total= 50 - 25 = 25mL Volume Detergent Bubbles Figure 4: Total volume of bubbles throughout reaction of whole liver in Catalase-hydrogen peroxide solution over 120sec. Trial Weight (g)� 0.005g Total Volume of Solution (+25mL) ...read more.

Conclusion

The temperature of the environment was not monitored throughout the process and may have therefore been different for each experimental run. This temperature may have denatured the enzymes within the liver, decreasing the amount of enzymes able to do effective work Keep the liver in a fridge until use to maintain a constant temperature The results gap between the different conditions of liver was not significant enough to expose patterns Small errors may have a noticeable effect on the trends exhibited by the data Add more substrate to gain a more separated result. The allowed time for the reaction was not enough to completely react the Catalase with the Hydrogen Peroxide in all cases. This is not required but would allow for in depth analysis of the data By not allowing the reactions to completely finish the experimental rate becomes an assumption for the samples which do not completely react within the 120 second time period Continue the experiment for 360 seconds. This will allow for the very slowest of reactions to take place and completely react with each other The oxygen bubbles produced escaped from the test tube and/or burst and did not therefore allow for the total oxygen production to be measured The oxygen production was the main measurement used to determine the rate of reaction. If the total oxygen production was altered then the entire results may be affected To avoid the loss of oxygen gas it would be more effective to measure the gas produced via the movement of a syringe so as to limit gas loss and give accurate quantitative results ?? ?? ?? ?? Mar-10 ...read more.

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