• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

DNA; Past, Present, and Future

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

DNA; Past, Present, and Future DNA, or deoxyribonucleic acid, is a nucleic acid containing genetic information and instruction that is essential in the growth and operation of all living organisms (except certain viruses). Due the fact that DNA's main role is the long-term preservation of information, it is frequently compared to a set of blueprints; somewhat resembling a recipe or code. DNA is composed of segments called genes that contain the process directions needed to build other cellular components such as RNA and proteins. Segments aren't the only sequences that constitute DNA; others are used for structural purposes or regulation of the use of the stored information. DNA comprises of two long polymers called nucleotides, which consist of backbones constructed by sugars and phosphate groups held together by ester bonds. As the two strands run in opposite directions in an anti-parallel manner, they form a double helix. The four types of molecules attached to each sugar as called adenine, guanine, thymine, and cytosine. These bases create the sequences of information that are read by genetic code by a process called transcription; copying expanses of DNA into the RNA. Chromosomes are long, organized DNA structures which are duplicated during cell division; DNA replication. Although both eukaryotes and prokaryotes store DNA, eukaryotes do so in the nucleus (with the exception of mitochondria and chloroplasts which have their own DNA) ...read more.

Middle

An additional application of DNA fingerprint technology is the diagnosis of inherited disorders in adults, children, and unborn babies. The technology is so powerful that, for example, even the blood-stained clothing of Abraham Lincoln could be analyzed for evidence of a genetic disorder called Marfan's Syndrome.2 As mentioned in this passage, DNA fingerprinting is the most utile advances in microbiological technology today. It is a laboratory procedure that uses DNA-modifying enzymes, such as nucleases and ligases. Nucleases are enzymes that cut DNA strands by catalyzing the hydrolysis of the phosphate-ester bonds. The most frequently used nucleases are the restriction endonucleases, which cut DNA at specific sequences. Naturally, these enzymes prevent phage infection in bacteria by digesting the phage upon entry. In science, they are used in molecular cloning and DNA fingerprinting. Ligases carry out the opposite functions; they reform cut or broken DNA strands. They are used to join together short segments of DNA to replicate a complete copy in DNA repair and genetic recombination. DNA fingerprinting requires five steps: 1. Isolating the DNA; only a small amount of tissue is needed. 2. Cutting, sizing, and sorting the DNA via nucleases (EcoR1); the DNA pieces are then sorted according to size by a sieving technique called electrophoresis and passed through agarose (seaweed gel). 3. Transferring the DNA to nylon; the nylon sheet is placed on the gel and soaked overnight. ...read more.

Conclusion

Prokids Scientific Group Meeting, an organization that has agreed to a series of commitments to foster international partnerships for joint action against human trafficking. They work towards obtaining DNA samples from kids found outside their families; victims of prostitution, forced labor, militants activities, and illegal adoption, and creating DNA profiles to store in an international database where they can be searched against the DNA profiles provided by families who have their children kidnapped or lost. In the long run, this movement will help reduce the global crime of human trafficking, and thus improve safety. Therefore, it can be concluded that DNA is already used to work towards a better future, and will come to play even more beneficial roles in the actual future. In conclusion, DNA has a variety of different uses in the present, and will have great uses in the future. However, none of this could have been possible without the various discoveries made in the past. If DNA's role in heredity wasn't discovered, it would be worthless to us today. Although we, in a very human manner, assume that all that needs to be discovered about DNA has been discovered, it may not be so and its uses may change radically in the future. However, we know for certain that DNA is not potentially harmful in any way as it occurs naturally. All in all, it has furthered science a lot, and will keep doing so in the future. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our International Baccalaureate Biology section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related International Baccalaureate Biology essays

  1. Research Question: Which method of DNA extraction (using a centrifuge or not) will yield ...

    Wait until all liquid has been filtered into the beaker. 6. (do only with trials involving centrifuge): centrifuge the solution for two minutes. Pour the supernatant fluid into a new graduated cylinder. 7. If centrifuge is not used, pour contents of the beaker into a graduated cylinder.

  2. Penicillin - its discovery, properties and uses.

    Mary's Hospital as a lecturer after graduate, found out by covering mould and drying the air current, bacteria will be easily killed. This inspired Joseph Lister11, the father of antisepsis, who is a surgeon to continue the research. In his research, he found out a phenomenon that the urine samples

  1. Biology Extended Essay 2009

    Vitamins Content Minerals Content (mg/100 g) Vitamin A (Beta-carotene) (IU/100mL) 190-400 K 179 Vitamin C (mg/100mL) 50 Ca 11.5 Vitamin B1 (Thiamin) (ug/100mL) 60-145 Mg 11.5 Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin) (ug/100 mL) 11-90 P 21.7 Pantothenic acid (ug/100 mL) 130-210 S 4.6 Folic acid (ug/100 mL)

  2. IB Genetic Unit Notes

    Codominant allele - pairs of alleles that both affect the phenotype when present in a heterozygote. Locus - the particular position on homologous chromosomes of a gene. Homozygous - Having two identical alleles of a gene Heterozygous - Having two different alleles of a gene.

  1. Cystic Fibrosis Research

    These enzymes break down the fat. If you have cystic fibrosis, the pancreas does not produce enzymes. Without these enzymes, the fat in food is not properly digested and it is difficult to gain weight. Mucus is also found in the pancreas because the mucus is able to block the path between the pancreas and the intestines.

  2. LAB-What infuences blood pressure

    + 92,2 182 98 136 81 132 82 71 + 54,6 170 70 116 71 115 63 72 + 64,5 180 71 107 67 102 56 73 + 65,5 161 73 137 84 144 92 74 + 55,8 166 68 + 110 72 107 66 75 + 110,5 192 94

  1. IB Biology notes on infection and the body's responses.

    therefore, many different B cells can be activated, each producing different antibodies against the same pathogen a. Therefore, against the same pathogen, a number of different antibodies can be made b. since many different B cells produce plasma cells, each capable of cloning itself, this is a polyclonal response ii.

  2. Sleep is a normal part of human life. Investigate the neurobiological basis of normal ...

    of sustained wakefulness, the metabolic activity of the brain decreases significantly (up to 6% for the whole brain). In humans, sleep deprivation also results in a decrease in core body temperature, a decrease in immune system function as measured by white cell count and activity, and a decrease in the release of growth hormone.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work