• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

DNA; Past, Present, and Future

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

DNA; Past, Present, and Future DNA, or deoxyribonucleic acid, is a nucleic acid containing genetic information and instruction that is essential in the growth and operation of all living organisms (except certain viruses). Due the fact that DNA's main role is the long-term preservation of information, it is frequently compared to a set of blueprints; somewhat resembling a recipe or code. DNA is composed of segments called genes that contain the process directions needed to build other cellular components such as RNA and proteins. Segments aren't the only sequences that constitute DNA; others are used for structural purposes or regulation of the use of the stored information. DNA comprises of two long polymers called nucleotides, which consist of backbones constructed by sugars and phosphate groups held together by ester bonds. As the two strands run in opposite directions in an anti-parallel manner, they form a double helix. The four types of molecules attached to each sugar as called adenine, guanine, thymine, and cytosine. These bases create the sequences of information that are read by genetic code by a process called transcription; copying expanses of DNA into the RNA. Chromosomes are long, organized DNA structures which are duplicated during cell division; DNA replication. Although both eukaryotes and prokaryotes store DNA, eukaryotes do so in the nucleus (with the exception of mitochondria and chloroplasts which have their own DNA) ...read more.

Middle

An additional application of DNA fingerprint technology is the diagnosis of inherited disorders in adults, children, and unborn babies. The technology is so powerful that, for example, even the blood-stained clothing of Abraham Lincoln could be analyzed for evidence of a genetic disorder called Marfan's Syndrome.2 As mentioned in this passage, DNA fingerprinting is the most utile advances in microbiological technology today. It is a laboratory procedure that uses DNA-modifying enzymes, such as nucleases and ligases. Nucleases are enzymes that cut DNA strands by catalyzing the hydrolysis of the phosphate-ester bonds. The most frequently used nucleases are the restriction endonucleases, which cut DNA at specific sequences. Naturally, these enzymes prevent phage infection in bacteria by digesting the phage upon entry. In science, they are used in molecular cloning and DNA fingerprinting. Ligases carry out the opposite functions; they reform cut or broken DNA strands. They are used to join together short segments of DNA to replicate a complete copy in DNA repair and genetic recombination. DNA fingerprinting requires five steps: 1. Isolating the DNA; only a small amount of tissue is needed. 2. Cutting, sizing, and sorting the DNA via nucleases (EcoR1); the DNA pieces are then sorted according to size by a sieving technique called electrophoresis and passed through agarose (seaweed gel). 3. Transferring the DNA to nylon; the nylon sheet is placed on the gel and soaked overnight. ...read more.

Conclusion

Prokids Scientific Group Meeting, an organization that has agreed to a series of commitments to foster international partnerships for joint action against human trafficking. They work towards obtaining DNA samples from kids found outside their families; victims of prostitution, forced labor, militants activities, and illegal adoption, and creating DNA profiles to store in an international database where they can be searched against the DNA profiles provided by families who have their children kidnapped or lost. In the long run, this movement will help reduce the global crime of human trafficking, and thus improve safety. Therefore, it can be concluded that DNA is already used to work towards a better future, and will come to play even more beneficial roles in the actual future. In conclusion, DNA has a variety of different uses in the present, and will have great uses in the future. However, none of this could have been possible without the various discoveries made in the past. If DNA's role in heredity wasn't discovered, it would be worthless to us today. Although we, in a very human manner, assume that all that needs to be discovered about DNA has been discovered, it may not be so and its uses may change radically in the future. However, we know for certain that DNA is not potentially harmful in any way as it occurs naturally. All in all, it has furthered science a lot, and will keep doing so in the future. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our International Baccalaureate Biology section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related International Baccalaureate Biology essays

  1. Research Question: Which method of DNA extraction (using a centrifuge or not) will yield ...

    3. Add laundry detergent and table salt (NaCl) to the fruit in the plastic bag. Mix by hand. The NaCl makes DNA clump, while the detergent dissolves the nucleus (by dissolving lipids). 4. Place a coffee filter over a 500 mL beaker and pour the fruit/detergent solution onto the filter.

  2. Penicillin - its discovery, properties and uses.

    About 161-137 BC, soldiers in the army of Sri Lankan in order to make plaster of the oil cakes (a traditional Sri Lankan sweetmeat) to treat wounds, they stored oil cakes for long periods in their hearth lofts before their campaign start.

  1. Phantom Limb Syndrome

    In 1990s, scientists in this field had conducted some great experiments and in the end led to a more complete theory. In 1992, Dr. V. Ramachandran of the University of California in San Diego realized that it might be some automatic adjustments in a human's brain that causes the Phantom limb syndrome.

  2. Biology Extended Essay 2009

    People consume it for health purposes; clearly orange juice is healthier to consume than soft drinks such as cola drinks and cordials. Nevertheless, after series of exploration, I have discovered that not many consumers rely on freshly squeezed orange juice on a daily bases but mostly the processed orange juice, which are more conveniently available in supermarkets.

  1. LAB-What infuences blood pressure

    80 145 62 152 67 131 + 48,1 159 66 105 66 112 73 132 + 73,6 185 75 136 80 134 76 133 + 60,8 170 69 131 81 127 77 134 + 53,4 164 74 129 69 115 68 135 + 75,3 175 76 140 85 134 84

  2. IB Biology notes on infection and the body's responses.

    therefore, many different B cells can be activated, each producing different antibodies against the same pathogen a. Therefore, against the same pathogen, a number of different antibodies can be made b. since many different B cells produce plasma cells, each capable of cloning itself, this is a polyclonal response ii.

  1. Bionics and Prosthetics - the future possibilities.

    This nexus is the neurobiology of the body. Neurobiology is the biology of the nervous system, the network that controls all these electrical impulses. These impulses are messages of electricity sent by the brain via the spinal cord to effector cells that cause the body to react or move.

  2. The Story of the Discovery of DNA

    Furthermore, there became a development of teams that were interested in being the first to determine the structure of the DNA molecule. A research scientist named Linus Pauling suggested that it was a three chained helix, hitherto he never really did much research with DNA since he was already deeply concentrated in other areas of research.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work