• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month
  1. 1
  2. 2
  3. 3
  4. 4
  5. 5
  6. 6
  7. 7
  8. 8
  9. 9
  10. 10
  11. 11
  12. 12
  13. 13
  14. 14
  15. 15
  16. 16
  17. 17
  18. 18
  19. 19
  20. 20
  21. 21
  22. 22
  23. 23
  24. 24
  25. 25
  26. 26
  27. 27
  28. 28

Ecology Open Investigation Does the geographic location affect the biotic and abiotic factors in Brown Lake and 18 Mile Swamp located at North Stradbroke Island.

Extracts from this document...


Higher Level Biology Ecology Open Investigation Does the geographic location affect the biotic and abiotic factors in Brown Lake and 18 Mile Swamp located at North Stradbroke Island. I. Background Information North Stradbroke Island (NSI) is a sand island that is sitting on top of a layer of bedrock. This sand island is located in 20 kilometres off Brisbane City in south-east Queensland, Australia. [4] In this investigation, two specific sites in NSI will be looked at - Brown Lake and 18 Mile Swamp. The first experiment site that was tested was called Brown Lake. Brown Lake is classified as a perched lake. Perched Lakes are the most common of the sand island lakes. These types of lakes are found at elevations of 100 metres of more above sea level. As perched lakes are directly reliant on rainfall for their water source, they can rise and fall by several meters or more from year to year, depending on the climatic conditions at the time. Brown Lake is frequently visited by people, with thousands of families swimming and canoeing in its clam water each year. Until in 2005, even motorized water sports were allowed on the lake. Brown Lake possesses a clear "tea" colour. This is due to the surrounding trees and reeds and also from the layer of organic matter, which forms the bed of the lake. [3] The natural bushland surrounding the lake is home to many delicate wildflowers, including small ground orchids. Eighteen Mile Swamp was the second experiment site of this investigation. Eighteen Mile Swamp also known as 18 Mile Swamp is located behind the sand dunes of Main Beach and stretches from The Keyholes to the southern end of the island to Jumpinpin. [4] 18 Mile Swamp plays is ecologically important to North Stradbroke Island for over 260 species of birds are found in the swamp - much of the Island's wildlife can be observed at this location. ...read more.


Turbidity is a term to describe how clear the water is. The clearness of the water depends on the amount of total suspended solids, also known as TTS. The greater the amount of TTS, the murkier the water is thus causing the level of turbidity to be high. [1] Graph 1.0 shows that 18MS's turbidity level is much higher than BL. More specifically the mean turbidity level of BL is 5.50 NTU (Table 3.0) whereas 18MS is a significant, 14.5 NTU (Table 3.1). The spread of data (standard deviation) of BL shown in Graph 1.0 is less than 18MS. BL turbidity values ranged from 2.00-8.00 (Table 1.2) and 18MS values ranged from 3.00-30.00 (Table 1.3). 18 Mile Swamp turbidity level is much higher than that of Brown Lake for the 18MS has more organic detritus. More organic detritus was also recorded in Table 1.4 - "a lot of moss". Another reason for the high level of turbidity in 18MS is the lack of activity carried out at this site therefore there is an increase in erosion and nutrient are able to be suspended in the water. With increase number of organic matter and nutrients in the swamp this will affect algae growth. All of these types of vegetation may be the cause of 18MS colour being dark brown and the presence of moss (Table 1.4). Though the data values of Brown Lake and 18 Mile Swamp is clearly different when graphed, statistically there is no difference the turbidity level of BL and 18MS thus accepting the Null Hypothesis. Graph 1.1 compares the average level of oxygen of Brown Lake and 18 Mile Swamp. Oxygen levels are at a low concentration at lakes and swamps - low enough to still sustain aquatic life. Oxygen levels are also known as dissolved oxygen. [1] Graph 1.1 shows that the oxygen level of Brown Lake is higher than 18 Mile Swamp - BL oxygen level being 7.13 mg/l (Table 3.0) ...read more.


The human impacts may have affected the number of macroinvertebrates collected and the temperature and oxygen levels of the lake. 18 Mile Swamp is located beside the causeway built for vehicles. When collecting the data at 18 Mile Swamp, several vehicles drove pass. Because the swamp is below land level, this may have affect turbidity level for as the car droves pass the sand dirt were swirled up. Temperature and oxygen level may also be affected to due to the vehicle generating heat on the surface. Ensure that Brown Lake is undisturbed before carrying out the experiment. Also when carrying out the experiment at 18 Mile Swamp, divide the causeway and have a lane in the middle. Appoint the cars to drive on the other side of the causeway, furthest from the Swamp. This was decrease the impact of vehicles on the swamp. Random errors Random errors are changes in conditions and material used for the investigation. Random errors may have slightly tampered with results. Because they are random errors, they is no definite solution for this but it can be kept at a minimal level by carrying out several tests and keeping controllable other factors controlled. Appendix History data on the sensitivity score of Brown Lake and 18 Mile Swamp Date Brown Lake 18 Mile Swamp 04/08/2004 4.4 3.8 09/09/2004 4.8 3.9 01/08/2005 4.0 4.5 01/09/2005 4.7 3.5 Brown Lake Physical Parameters History Data Date Turbidity (NTU) Oxygen Level (mg/l) pH Level Salinity (0/00) Nitrites (mg/l) Nitrates (mg/l) 04/08/04 10 9 7.16 0 <0.3 0 09/08/04 10 8.30 7.11 0 0.1-0.3 <0.3 01/08/05 4.6 9 5.4 0 <0.3 0 01/09/05 10 8.5 7.2 0 <0.3 0 18 Mile Swamp Physical Parameters History Data Date Turbidity (NTU) Oxygen Level (mg/l) pH Level Salinity (0/00) Nitrites (mg/l) Nitrates (mg/l) 04/08/04 10 6 8.5 0 <0.3 0 09/08/04 10 7.37 6.18 0 0.3 <0.3 01/08/05 36 7.5 5.44 0 <0.3 0 01/09/05 10 7 6.8 0 <0.3 0 Table for Critical Values for T ?? ?? ?? ?? ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our International Baccalaureate Biology section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related International Baccalaureate Biology essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Neurology and Behaviour. Focus question: Is there an increase in the perception and ...

    5 star(s)

    These images can be located in Appendix Six and where found to be that of a coffee stain, tape worm, acne scars, moss and a petri dish cookie. These results are unusual and perhaps indicate that the male participants were more aware as to what the tape worm was as it is believed the female participants mistook it for pasta.

  2. The Effects of Salinity on Wheat Germination

    and eye contact (can cause eye damage/irritation). Sodium Chloride in the form to be used in the experiment is by no means hazardous and its use should pose no danger with proper routine safety procedures. 1.3.3 Method 1.3.1 Diagram 1 (Experimental Setup)

  1. Environmental Factors affecting plant growth

    I measured the surface area of the leaves at the end, as not many seeds had germinated at the beginning, using a graph paper. I placed the leaves on the graph and counted the number of boxes they covered. The results were then recorded in a table.

  2. Osmosis Experiment. This experiment is to consider how salinity influences osmosis in potato cells.

    This may be enough time for the osmosis process to start. Size of the test tubes There should be 5 test tubes (if there is a short time limit) and 25 test tubes (if there is no time limit), all the same size in order to achieve accurate results from the experiment.

  1. Biodiversity Investigation The aim of this investigation is to determine plant biodiversity of both ...

    Region B (Quadrats 10 feet away) Rye Grass 6 Dandelions Legumes 15 Rumex 3 Chinese Fire Weed Mint 14 Clovers 22 Bermuda Grass 4 Figure 1.7 - Raw Data obtained from counting plant species and quantity in Location 7 Location 7 Region A (Quadrats next to the pond)

  2. Population Ecology - Dandelions

    dandelion plants/transect In order to visualize the trends or patterns in the population of dandelion plants as the investigation progressed, the following graphs were constructed using Excel 2007: Graph 1: Dandelion plant population (own data) Graph 2: Average dandelion plant population (class data)

  1. What is the effect of increasing pH concentration (pH 3, 4, 5, 6 and ...

    The average numbers of leaves are less in pH 3 and 4 due to fungal infection. Conclusion Finally from table 6, we can see that the highest average stem length is in pH 7 (2.025) and the second best result is obtained in pH 6 (1.94)

  2. How does the salinity of water affect the germination of mung been seeds as ...

    Although plants require Na+, in excess this mineral can begin to have toxic effects on the plant that affects it capacity to germinate. Excess salt can cause ?reduced cell turgor and depressed rates of [radicle] ? elongation... Furthermore, high intracellular concentrations of both Na+ and Cl- can inhibit the metabolism

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work