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Effect of Nitrate Concentration on Plant Growth

Free essay example:

Effect of Nitrates on Plant Growth                                                                                  

Data Processing and Presentation:

Results:

Raw Data:                        

Relationship Between Distilled Water and the Growth of Duckweed

Distilled Water

Beaker    1

Beaker2

Beaker 3

Beaker 4

Beaker 5

Beaker 6

Beaker 7

Beaker 8

Beaker 9

Beaker 10

Day 0

6

6

6

6

6

6

6

6

6

6

Day 1

8

7

8

7

6

7

8

6

6

6

Day 2

10

6

12

6

7

7

11

8

11

8

Day 3

15 (1 grey)

6 (1 grey)

19 (2 grey)

9 (6 grey)

9 (3 grey)

9 (2 grey)

17 (3 grey)

7 (2 grey)

16 (1 grey)

8 (2 grey)

Day 4

16 (2 grey)

5 (1 grey)

19 (3 grey)

8 (all grey)

9 (5 grey)

11 (2 grey)

18 (3 grey)

8 (4 grey)

17 (3 grey)

7 (6 grey)

Day 5

16 (3 grey)

6 (2 grey)

18 (3 grey)

9 (7 grey)

9 (5 grey)

10 (4 grey)

18 (1 grey)

8 (5 grey)

16 (4 grey)

7 (6 grey)

Day 6

17 (3 grey)

5 (5 grey)

27 (5 grey)

6 (6 grey)

9 (5 grey)

11 (7 grey)

21 (1 grey)

7 (7 grey)

25 (4 grey)

7 (7 grey)

Day 7

19 (5 grey)

6 (6 grey)

19 (12 grey)

9 (9 grey)

10 (7 grey)

12 (9 grey)

24 (2 grey)

8 (8 grey)

25 (4 grey)

8 (8 grey)

Day 8

17 (4 grey)

5 (5 grey)

18 (7 grey)

9 (9 grey)

10 (7 grey)

11 (9 grey)

20 (2 grey)

9 (9 grey)

26 (4 grey)

6 (6 grey)

Day 9

25 (5 grey)

5 (5 grey)

30 (18 grey)

9 (9 grey)

12 (3 grey)

14 (10 grey)

32 (4 grey)

9 (4 grey)

34 (9 grey)

8 (6 grey)

Day 10

19 (5 grey)

5 (5 grey)

28 (9 grey)

9 (11 grey)

11 (7 grey)

7 (4 grey)

32 (9 grey)

9 (9 grey)

28 (8 grey, with bug)

8 (6 grey)

Relationship Between 10mg/ml Nitrate Concentration and the Growth of Duckweed

10 mg/ml (±1) Nitrate Concentration

Beaker   1

Beaker 2

Beaker 3

Beaker 4

Beaker 5

Beaker 6

Beaker 7

Beaker 8

Beaker 9

Beaker 10

Day 0

6

6

6

6

6

6

6

6

6

6

Day 1

9

14

8

11

13

10

11

9

8

9

Day 2

10

15

14

13

16

10

14

11

8

10

Day 3

14

17

/

12

18

11

18

12

8

13

Day 4

16

15 (4 grey)

/

15 (3 grey)

21(7 grey)

11(3 grey)

20(5 grey)

20

9

14(6 grey)

Day 5

17 (3 grey)

28 (4 grey)

/

28 (3 grey)

24(7 grey)

14 (3 grey)

23 (8 grey)

24(2 grey)

9 (4 grey)

16(6 grey)

Day 6

37 (3 grey)

28 (17 grey)

/

33 (4 grey)

29(11 grey)

17(3 grey)

25(6 grey)

20 (14 grey)

11(5 grey)

16(6 grey)

Day 7

30 (3 grey)

29 (27 grey)

/

41 (5 grey)

30(16 grey)

21(5 grey)

27(8 grey)

23 (20 grey)

11(6 grey)

19(6 grey)

Day 8

31 (4 grey)

29 (28 grey)

/

42 (6 grey)

30(19 grey)

21(6 grey)

35(8 grey)

23 (21 grey)

12(7 grey)

20(6 grey)

Day 9

38 (6 grey)

29 (28 grey)

/

53 (9 grey)

30(25 grey)

22(8 grey)

36 (12 grey)

23  (21 grey)

12(7 grey)

23 (10 grey)

Day 10

40 (7 grey)

30 (28 grey)

/

57 (9 grey)

30(26 grey)

22(8 grey)

37 (12 grey)

23 (21 grey)

12(9 grey)

23 (10 grey)

Relationship Between 25mg/ml Nitrate Concentration and the Growth of Duckweed

25 mg/ml (±1) Nitrate Concentration

Beaker   1

Beaker 2

Beaker 3

Beaker 4

Beaker 5

Beaker 6

Beaker 7

Beaker 8

Beaker 9

Beaker 10

Day 0

6

6

6

6

6

6

6

6

6

6

Day 1

6

6

6

6

6

7

6

6

7

6

Day 2

7

12

7

13

9

10

14

7

11

12

Day 3

10 (6 grey)

15 (2 grey)

11 (1 grey)

12

19 (3 grey)

23 (2 grey)

16 (1 grey)

7 (7 grey)

12 (3 grey)

15 (3 grey)

Day 4

12 (6 grey)

20 (4 grey)

12 (1 grey)

17 (2 grey)

22 (3 grey)

29 (5 grey)

23 (3 grey)

7 (7 grey)

18 (3 grey)

21 (4 grey)

Day 5

11 (6 grey)

22 (5 grey)

13 (3 grey)

18 (6 grey)

27 (5 grey)

36 (4 grey)

26 (5 grey)

7 (7 grey)

20 (3 grey)

23 (4 grey)

Day 6

15 (6 grey)

28 (6 grey)

17 (4 grey)

21 (6 grey)

33 (5 grey)

46 (5 grey)

29 (6 grey)

7 (7 grey)

insect

26 (8 grey)

36 (4 grey)

Day 7

13 (7 grey)

31 (6 grey)

17 (4 grey)

23 (6 grey)

38 (5 grey)

46 (8 grey)

33 (6 grey)

7 (7 grey) insect

29 (9 grey)

39 (5 grey)

Day 8

14 (8 grey)

37 (7 grey)

22 (4 grey)

25 (5 grey)

39 (10 grey)

50 (9 grey)

38 (7 grey)

7 (7 grey) insect

30 (8 grey)

45 (5 grey)

Day 9

17 (6 grey)

38 (9 grey)

24 (6 grey)

29 (5 grey)

39 (6 grey)

52 (7 grey)

44 (12 grey)

7 (7 grey) insect

40 (10 grey)

50 (9 grey)

Day 10

18 (8 grey)

41 (10 grey)

24 (7 grey)

30 (6 grey)

42 (7 grey)

55 (13 grey)

48 (12 grey)

7 (7 grey) insect

41 (8 grey)

49 (4 grey)

Relationship Between 50mg/ml Nitrate Concentration and the Growth of Duckweed

50 mg/ml (±1) Nitrate Concentration

Beaker   1

Beaker 2

Beaker 3

Beaker 4

Beaker 5

Beaker 6

Beaker 7

Beaker 8

Beaker 9

Beaker 10

Day 0

6

6

6

6

6

6

6

6

6

6

Day 1

8

9

11

11

14

7

7

11

12

8

Day 2

9

12

10

8

8

10

8

13

8

9

Day 3

9

15

15

9

12

15

7

13

9

15

Day 4

 10

17

18

10

16

15

6

15

11

18

Day 5

10

19

16

11

16

16

6

11

9

22

Day 6

9

24

22

13

23

21

7

22

11

25

Day 7

8

24

23

11

25

23

6

25

16

30

Day 8

7

14

8

7

11

10

5

10

9

31

Day 9

9

31

28

10

26

29

3

23

17

31

Day 10

12

37

31

15

31

36

2

34

29

32

Relationship Between 100mg/ml Nitrate Concentration and the Growth of Duckweed

100 mg/ml (±1) Nitrate Concentration

Beaker   1

Beaker 2

Beaker 3

Beaker 4

Beaker 5

Beaker 6

Beaker 7

Beaker 8

Beaker 9

Beaker 10

Day 0

6

6

6

6

6

6

6

6

6

6

Day 1

7

7

6

6

6

6

7

6

7

6

Day 2

11

15

8

8

8

10

10

9

9

7

Day 3

15

21

11

14

11(11 grey)

16

14

14

14

9

Day 4

17

25

11

15

11(11 grey)

20

17

19

14

13

Day 5

22

28

17

18

11(11 grey)

21

21

20

15

14

Day 6

22

37

20

20

11(11 grey)

24

22

26

14

17

Day 7

24

38

22

23

11(11 grey)

24

24

27

15

18

Day 8

25

40

24

23

11(11 grey)

27

28

28

12

20

Day 9

32

54

30

25

11(11 grey)

33

30

31

10

23

Day 10

30

57

11

27

11(11 grey)

35

30

29

9

23

Relationship Between 150mg/ml Nitrate Concentration and the Growth of Duckweed

150 mg/ml (±1) Nitrate Concentration

Beaker

1

Beaker 2

Beaker 3

Beaker 4

Beaker 5

Beaker 6

Beaker 7

Beaker 8

Beaker 9

Beaker 10

Day 0

6

6

6

6

6

6

6

6

6

6

Day 1

13

10

9

9

8

9

8

9

8

9

Day 2

14

10

9

9

9

9

10

11

8

9

Day 3

21

12(1 grey)

9(1 grey)

10(4 grey)

11(2 grey)

13(2 grey) insect

14(1 grey)

18

10

11(2 grey)

Day 4

28(1 grey)

16(3 grey)

14(3 grey)

14(5 grey)

14(5 grey)

16(4 grey) insect

18(3 grey)

22

13(2 grey)

16(3 grey)

Day 5

34(2 grey)

17(3 grey)

16(4 grey)

16(6 grey)

17(2 grey)

17(3 grey) insect

19(4 grey)

25(1 grey)

/

16(3 grey)

Day 6

39(2 grey)

24(3 grey)

22(4 grey)

20(6 grey)

23(2 grey)

19(3 grey) insect

24(8 grey)

30(4 grey)

/

28(4 grey)

Day 7

40(3 grey)

27(3 grey)

22 (4 grey)

22(6 grey)

23(2 grey)

24(6 grey) insect

24 (10 grey)

32(4 grey)

/

30(4 grey)

Day 8

47 (5 grey)

30 (3 grey)

23 (4 grey)

25 (6 grey)

24(2 grey)

25(6 grey) insect

24(13 grey)

36(4 grey)

/

33(2 grey)

Day 9

65 (7 grey)

38 (4 grey)

28 (4 grey)

27 (8 grey)

33 (3 grey)

27(15 grey) insect

24(24 grey)

43(7 grey)

/

36(3 grey)

Day 10

/

44 (4 grey)

30 (4 grey)

28 (22 grey)

40 (4 grey)

28 (25 grey) insect

25(25 grey)

45(7 grey)

/

43(3 grey)

Qualitative Data:

Distilled Water

Roots shows general trend of growth through out experiment. Many of the fronds also turned grey during the experiment. Some also turned yellow. However in particular in beaker 2 and 3 the fronds began to dissolve with in the beaker. Also some of the fronds had shrunk during the experiment and on the very last day an insect appeared in beaker 10.

10mg/ml Nitrate Concentration

There is a general steady increase in growth of duckweed. Also many fronds had turned grey during the experiment. And beaker 3 was broken during the experiment so no data was recorded after day 3.

25mg/ml Nitrate Concentration

There is also a general increasing trend of the growth of duckweed. Many of the fronds had turned grey during the experiment.

50mg/ml Nitrate Concentration

As the steady increase of duckweeds during the experiment there has been a recorded amount of fronds either turning transparent or translucent. Also green moss was found on all beakers except for beaker 7. Beaker 5 also had the most moss present. Roots length has also increased through out the experiment.

100mg/ml Nitrate Concentration

From day three in beaker 5 all the fronds had die. Also there is an increasing trend in the growth of fronds.

150mg/ml Nitrate Concentration

Many of the fronds turned grey during the experiment also there is significant growth on the roots of fronds. And in beaker 6 an insect was found inside the beaker along with the duckweed. Beaker 1 and 9 was broken during the experiment. There is also a steady increase in growth of fronds.

Averages On the Effect On Different Nitrate Concentration On Plant Growth

Distilled Water

10mg/ml Nitrate Concentration

25mg/ml Nitrate Concentration

50mg/ml Nitrate Concentration

100mg/ml Nitrate Concentration

150mg/ml Nitrate Concentration

Day 0

6.00

6.00

6.00

6.00

6.00

6.00

Day 1

6.90

10.20

6.20

9.80

6.40

9.20

Day 2

8.60

12.10

10.20

9.50

9.50

9.80

Day 3

9.20

13.70

11.20

11.90

12.80

11.60

Day 4

8.10

12.60

14.30

13.60

15.10

14.20

Day 5

7.70

15.90

15.50

13.60

17.60

16.60

Day 6

8.50

15.30

20.10

17.70

20.20

21.40

Day 7

7.00

15.00

21.30

19.10

21.50

22.40

Day 8

6.90

15.30

22.70

11.20

22.70

24.70

Day 9

10.50

15.60

26.30

20.70

26.80

29.80

Day 10

8.80

17.00

27.30

25.90

25.10

23.60

Calculations:

Calculating averages for different days in data recording

image00.png

Where:

 x = sum of the days results

n = amount of data recorded that day

y = average of that days recording

All of the grey fronds were not counted therefore only counting the fronds that was healthy and green.

This formula is used to calculate all the averages for all the data collected resulting in the graph above. A constant of two decimal places is used.

Graph:image01.png

This graph shows a general increasing trend in all solutions of potassium nitrate and distilled water. Distilled water has the least amount of plant growth compared to all the other different concentrations of nitrate solution. It also shows a general trend that as nitrate concentration increase the amount of plant growth also increase. However there is an anomaly, regarding the significant drop on day 8 of 50mg/ml nitrate concentration.

Conclusion & Evaluation:

Conclusion:

After observing the growth of duckweed in different nitrate concentration for 20 days. It can be seen from the graph that there is a clear correlation between the plant growth in an aquatic environment and different nitrate concentration. As seen on the graph it shows that as amount of nitrate concentration increased the amount of fronds also increased significantly. As can been justified by determining the difference between the distilled water sample and the rest of the samples containing potassium nitrate. Showing that potassium nitrate has a positive correlation on the plant growth, increasing the plant growth.

However there are a few anomalies in the data. As probably the most significant is the drop on day 8 of collection of data at 50mg/ml nitrate concentration. Which is most likely to be a miscount in fronds as the fronds are not likely to disappear. Even though the most significant growth is seen with the highest nitrate concentration solution, however it also shows that 25mg/ml nitrate concentration has a very similar to the 100mg/ml nitrate concentration. Showing that the concentration may not have an effect on the growth of the duckweed. However it definitely demonstrates that the nitrate solution has an effect on plant growth.

Also since the solution is rich in potassium it is commonly used as a fertilizer. As potassium is vital in plant growth, further supporting the data collected. Therefore it is reasonable to conclude that nitrate has an effect on plant growth as it increases the plant growth of duckweed in aquatic environment.

Evaluation:

Weakness

Significance

Improvements

The data collection was not done at a constant date as stated in the method.

Counting at different days has caused the data to be inconsistent as the duckweed fronds were not counted every two days as mentioned in the method, which would have a been a more effective method at recording data. Rather than counting only when biology lesson was in progress. As it is able to provide a more consistent data in order to draw a more reliable conclusion.

Data collection should be done every two days allowing data to be more consistent.

The water samples made not have had an equal amount of nitrate solution into the ten different beakers.

During the mixing of the nitrate concentration some of the beakers might not have as much solution as the other beakers as it is not a measured amount of solution. Therefore causing the duckweed to absorb different level of nutrients affecting the plants growth rate. Overall affecting the final result of the experiment.

The amount of each solution should be measured before putting in the beaker with the duckweed. Therefore avoiding the inconsistent in variables.

Different methods in counting the number of duckweed fronds.

There were different ways of counting fronds by different groups, in the 50mg/ml nitrate concentration on the day 8 there is a significant drop in the number of duckweed fronds. Which is mention in the graph processing. Furthermore many of the small fronds beside the bigger fronds were not counted therefore affect the overall data for the whole experiment.

A more specific instruction should have been given in counting the fronds. Pictures of the fronds could be taken before counting making it easier to count. Also a magnifying glass could be used when counting the fronds.

Different methods in determining the number of dead duckweed fronds.

During the counting of number of dead duckweed fronds there was a variety of methods in determining the dead duckweed fronds. Some determined that the duckweed frond was dead when it was only half transparent and some determined the death of duckweed fronds based on whether it was transparent and translucent. Also in the water sample 100 mg/ml nitrate concentration there was only records on dead duckweed fronds in beaker 5. Furthermore in 50mg/ml nitrate concentration no death of duckweed was recorded. Which could have affected the results.

A clear determination of dead duckweeds should have been instituted between groups therefore avoiding different methods in counting dead duckweeds.

Different method in recording the number of duckweed fronds.

There were different methods in recording raw data as different groups had different ways of presenting their data it made it difficult to interpret what was on the tables in order to draw conclusions. Which would have affected the final result of the experiment, which might have cause the different concentration to have unreasonable data.

A standard table for recording raw data could have been drawn so that the interpretation of the data would not have been different.

Beakers were placed at different positions rather than an aquarium under fluorescent lights as stated in the method.

Beakers were placed in different places rather than the controlled environment of the aquarium under the fluorescent lights as stated in the method. Rather the were placed along the windows which provides them with sunlight cause the those plants to photosynthesize which could have effected the plant growth as they were placed in different beakers. This could have significantly affected the data therefore making the experiment unreliable.

This could be avoided by following the method by controlling the environment that the duckweeds are positioned in. Allowing only the nitrate concentration to be changed.

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