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Explain how water moves from the soil into the plant

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Introduction

Explain how water moves from the soil to the leaves. List and explain environmental factors affect the rate of transpiration. Firstly, the water is absorbed by the younger part of the roots. Root hairs form the piliferous region of the root (just behind the growing tip of a young root) and increase the surface area over which water absorption takes place. The water in the soil is taken into the root hairs by the process of osmosis, using the higher concentration outside of the root than within the root hair cells. Now, the water is transferred to the xylem. ...read more.

Middle

Root pressure often requires energy, as metabolic poisons halt the process. Root pressure also helps the water to move upwards in small plants, but is not strong enough to move water in tall plants due to the force of gravity. In tall plants, the water travels through the xylem vessels, long and narrow tubes. The xylem vessels provide a continuous pathway from the roots through the stem and to the leaves of the plant. The narrow diameter of the xylem vessel increases the capillarity forces, which helps the water to move upwards in the plant. ...read more.

Conclusion

The first environmental factor affecting the rate of transpiration is light. Plants transpire more rapidly in the light than in the dark. This is because light stimulates the opening of the stomata. Also, light speeds up the process of transpiration by warming the leaf. The second environmental factor affecting the rate of transpiration is temperature. Plants transpire more rapidly at higher temperatures because water evaporates more rapidly as the temperature rises. The third environmental factor affecting the rate of transpiration is soil water. A plant cannot continue to transpire rapidly if its water loss is not made up by replacement from the soil. When absorption of water by the hair roots fails to keep up with the rate of transpiration the stomata close. This reduces the rate of transpiration. ...read more.

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