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Extended Essay- How is production of carbon dioxide (CO2) during digestion affected by the type of carbohydrate consumed, in reference to artificial versus natural?

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Introduction

Biology How is production of carbon dioxide (CO2) during digestion affected by the type of carbohydrate consumed, in reference to artificial versus natural? Nicole Davis Mr. McGregor Extended Essay Word count: 3,071 Abstract Most gas production is due to the digestion of carbohydrates. The goal of this experiment is to identify a difference, immense or minute, of carbon dioxide released from artificial (ex. Splenda) and natural (ex. Cane sugar) carbohydrates. The best way to determine a difference is to collect the carbon dioxide released (and other gases as well) from a water-yeast-carbohydrate mixture. By the end of the experiment, there was an identifiable difference between the natural and artificial carbohydrate's reaction with yeast. Previous experiments and literature supports the data collected in this experiment. The answer as to why and how the release of carbon dioxide occurs is found in the research performed. The conclusion of this paper turns to artificial sweeteners being the main gas producer during digestion. There was not a big difference between the two forms of carbohydrates, but there was a single group of sugars that produced more carbon dioxide in the end. The results from the research were found to be in agreement with my hypothesis, data, and conclusion. In the end, digesting sugars will always produce gas, but natural carbohydrates produce less than artificial carbohydrates. Table of Contents Introduction..................................................................4 Chemical Digestion.........................................................4 Research.......................................................................8 Sugar Alcohols..............................................................9 Chemistry Experiment.....................................................12 Conclusion/Evaluation......................................................17 Bibliographies...............................................................18 Appendix A Ingredients....................................................22 Appendix B Tables and figures............................................25 Introduction Why do our bodies release more gas when we digest certain types of carbohydrates? Of course personal discomfort is what every person tries to avoid daily. It may not be such a 'big deal' because 'it's just a natural bodily function', but one might not think so. It would be wise to acknowledge that flatulence is a big, personal disturbance. For this reason alone it is important to consider what we put in our bodies and how it affects our personal discomfort. ...read more.

Middle

Fruits and vegetables naturally contain sugars that make up Truv�a. The article also says that lots of different types of foods contain complex sugars; for example, beans contain a complex sugar called raffinose that is not easily broken down in the small intestine. Hemorrhoids in Plain English's13 article, "Primary Reason for Farts: Too much sugar", said that complex sugars are difficult to digest and absorb, leading to hydrogen and carbon dioxide production. Under "Prevention tips", the article lists some things you can change to prevent the amount of gas you are passing. It says that if you have irritable bowel syndrome, it would be wise to treat it, because it reduces the body's ability to digest complex sugars. They suggest cutting down on complex sugars as they produce gas, and to avoid artificial sweeteners all together. They suggest that taking certain enzymes to break down complex sugars makes them easier to digest. 13 "Nutrition Fact Sheets: Carbohydrates." Northwestern University. 2009. Northwestern University, Web. 28 Oct 2009. <http://www.feinberg.northwestern.edu/nutrition/factsheets/carbohydrates.html>. 14 "Fart or Flatulence." Hemorrhoids in Plain English. 2009. Hemorrhoids in Plain English, Web. 28 Oct 2009. <http://www.hemorrhoidsinplainenglish.com/anorectal/flatulence.htm>. Experiment Research Question: Is there a difference in the amount of carbon dioxide released by digesting certain kinds of carbohydrates? Hypothesis: The artificial sugars will produce more gas. As stated previously; the body's intestines contain bacteria called Escherichia Coli, or E. coli for short. When this bacteria digest sugars that the body intakes, carbon dioxide is released. Independent variables include the type of sugar digested by yeast culture; Cane Sugar, Sorbitol, Truvia, and Splenda were used in this experiment. Dependent Variable: Volume of carbon dioxide produced measured by collecting gas over water. Controlled Variables: A number of variables were held constant to ensure that any difference in gas production was only due to the type of carbohydrate. These include the amount and type of yeast, amount of water, temperature of the water, temperature of the room, amount of carbohydrate (artificial and natural) ...read more.

Conclusion

Science Toys, Web. 28 Oct 2009. <http://sci-toys.com/ingredients/sorbitol.html>. Figures 4 and 5: Quellon, Simon. "Ingredients- Sorbitol." Science Toys. 2008. Science Toys, Web. 28 Oct 2009. <http://sci-toys.com/ingredients/sorbitol.html>. Table 2: Sugar Carbohydrate Monosaccharide or disaccharide Additional information Beet sugar (cane sugar) Sucrose Disaccharide (fructose and glucose) Similar to white and powdered sugar, but varied degree of purification Brown sugar Sucrose Disaccharide (fructose and glucose) Similar to white and powdered sugar, but varied degree of purification Corn syrup Glucose Monosaccharide Fruit sugar Fructose Monosaccharide Very sweet High-fructose corn syrup Fructose Monosaccharide Very sweet and inexpensive. Added to soft drinks and canned or frozen fruits Honey Fructose and glucose Monosaccharides Malt sugar Maltose Disaccharide (glucose and glucose) Formed by the hydrolysis of starch, but sweeter than starch Maple syrup Sucrose Disaccharide (fructose and glucose) Milk sugar Lactose Disaccharide (glucose and galactose) Made in mammary glands of most lactating animals Powdered sugar Sucrose Disaccharide (fructose and glucose) Similar to white and brown sugar, but varied degree of purification White sugar Sucrose Disaccharide (fructose and glucose) Similar to brown and powdered sugar, but varied degree of purification "Carbohydrates- Chemical Structure." Faqs. 2009. Advameg Inc., Web. 27 Oct 2009. <http://www.faqs.org/nutrition/Ca-De/Carbohydrates.html>. Table 3: Simple Carbohydrates Complex Carbohydrates Digestible SIMPLE Carbohydrates Digestible COMPLEX Carbohydrates Monosaccharides Examples Polysaccharides Examples Glucose Fruit, honey, corn syrup Starch and dextrins Grains, legumes & vegetables Fructose Fruit, juices, honey, high fructose corn syrup Glycogen Meats Galactose Fruit, honey Partially Digested COMPLEX Carbohydrates Mannose Pineapple, olives, carrots Inulin Jerusalem artichokes, onions, garlic Disaccharides Mannosans Legumes Sucrose Cane sugar, maple syrup Raffinose Sugar beets, kidney beans, lentils, navy beans Lactose Milk and milk products Stachyose Dried beans Maltose Malt products and some breakfast cereals Penthouses Fruits and gums Carbohydrate Derivatives Indigestible COMPLEX carbohydrates(Dietary Fiber) Ethyl alcohol Fermented grains Cellulose Vegetables and seeds Lactic acid Milk products Hemicellulose Vegetables and seeds Malic acid Fruits Pectins Citrus Fruits Gums & mucilages Oats, barley, seeds "Nutrition Fact Sheets: Carbohydrates." Northwestern University. 2009. Northwestern University, Web. 28 Oct 2009. <http://www.feinberg.northwestern.edu/nutrition/factsheets/carbohydrates.html>. Davis 2 Davis 1 ...read more.

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