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Introduction

TABLE OF CONTENTS Introduction.................................................................................p.2 Definition of cloning.....................................................................p.2-3 Reproductive technologies..............................................................p.3-4 Therapeutic technique.....................................................................p.4-5 Asexual human reproduction...........................................................p.5-6 Definition of dignity.......................................................................p.6 Religious views on human cloning and dignity...................................p.6-11 Conclusion.....................................................................................p.12 Bibliography.................................................................................p.13 What are the different religious approaches to human cloning? Are they all preserving the concept of human dignity? Biomedical sciences have made not only important advances for mankind, in addition, their research and experimentation have brought about heated debates touching on what "we" hold dear, and that is: our humanity. Cloning is definitely one of the hot topics. The general public is more worried about the "cloned" twin rather than asking themselves if science can really bring human cloning to practice. In today's society, we know that Dolly, the cloned sheep, is dead but does the "possibility" still exist and refer to human cloning. If states around the world have already made legislation against cloning, what fears remain? What voices are raised to answer these questions so dear to all of us? In this paper, I will discuss the different religious approaches to human cloning, and view in detail if they are preserving the concept of human dignity. Definition of cloning To clarify, cloning is a reproductive technology that not only removes, the insemination and fertilization of a couple, but it also excludes the partner from the complete procedure of reproduction. Its alleged advantages are eugenic in spirit: "removal of deleterious genetic material from the gene pool, and programming the genotype in such a way as to maximize certain desirable traits-e.g. intelligence, creativity, artistic ability" 1. There are some people that judge the procedures of cloning as moral in stipulations of its consequences, such as Joseph Fletcher. This because, if controlling reproduction would help improve the intelligence of a human being, this would in a future help solve the problems the human world is facing nowadays. In today's society, many are suspicious that there might be "something inhumane"2 in the science laboratory where human cloning is practiced, but it is definite that "man is a maker and a selector and a designer, and the more rationally contrived and deliberate anything is, the human it is" 3. ...read more.

Middle

Most religious traditions translate dignity as sanctity or holiness meaning, life is a gift from a loving God not a possesion. Religious views on human cloning and dignity: Islam Pali Buddhist Jewish Christian Islam According to the Islamic religion God, had created man and woman through the "divine intervention", once Adam and Eve were created, the procreation of human life occurred naturally, that has been looked over by God himself. This meaning, that according to the Quran, the original act of reproduction occurred naturally, through a holy work of creation, which cannot be replaced. There is a verse in the Quran that highlights in detail on the action of procreation: "Mankind, fear your Lord, who created you of a single soul, And from it created its mate, And from the pair of them scattered abroad many men and women." 8 Consequently, one can determine that according to the Islamic religion, God has divinely given all life to the world, and only He can take life away. The Quran also referrers to the serious condemnation that is imposed on people that believe that life can be given to the world without the divine intervention of God. The dignity of man in Islam has already been pointed out, even though in a marginal method. The human being is a creation of the Lord, which was formed under the divine intervention, and according to the Quran, God thought he did a good job in the creation of the human life; this signifying that man is untouchable. Man is carrier of God's spirit, and by altering its genetics; it is no longer a creation of God, thus altering also the Lord's spirit. According to Islam, and in conclusion to the views of the Lord, it can be said that only he has been given the power of reason. He is the only One who can be punished or held responsible for the creation of human life. ...read more.

Conclusion

For example the clone will know if he will inherit a disease simply by looking at the original human being. This influencing negatively the life of the clone, which might decide to change his being, simply because he does not want to resemble the human's existence. There is another point that might go against human cloning, and that is of the manipulation of the self-identity of a human being. No human should be able to know why his genetic strands are created the way they are, while clones know exactly who and why created them. According to Robert Spaemann, "in vitro fertilization- is "forcing" a human into existence"15. In conclusion, it can be said that according to the Christian religion, with the creation of genetic manipulation, a person is predestined to have certain characteristics that cannot be altered or undone, and as a result going against the beliefs of this religion. Conclusion In the society we live in today, 83% of the human race believes in a religious tradition. Religious beliefs most certainly guide, direct and redirect the dialogue about the advances in biotechnology, especially this specific topic of human cloning. In the past, medicine used to be linked and associated with religion. Now, just to rely on science, instead of considering the "whole person" and his/her beliefs in the scientist would be remiss. If we now are advancing in knowledge to make life better for all, what legacy does cloning give us if the dialogue and research happen only in the laboratory? The need to carefully consider religious beliefs is most important. Besides, there have been no successfully cloned animals since Dolly. Any advances in cloning need to consider the fact of human dignity. The need for both faith and reason to guide advancement of the theory of cloning is important because maybe cloning plants for vaccines may lead to better health for all. However, it seems unnecessary to clone the human person. ...read more.

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