• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month
Page
  1. 1
    1
  2. 2
    2
  3. 3
    3
  4. 4
    4
  5. 5
    5
  6. 6
    6
  7. 7
    7
  8. 8
    8
  9. 9
    9
  10. 10
    10
  11. 11
    11
  12. 12
    12
  13. 13
    13
  14. 14
    14
  15. 15
    15
  16. 16
    16

How does the distribution of Plantago maior differ?

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Research question How does the distribution of Plantago maior varies in Sowinski Park and Bielanski Forest? Did the specialization occur? Introduction Each plant has its individual factors affecting distribution. For instance, Plantago maior grows in compacted soils, usually on road sides or near pathways, it often grows on lawns as a weed. Sometimes when two populations of the same specie are isolated from each other and grow in different environments, the process of speciation can occur, that is formation of new specie because of new conditions of environment or isolation. In this field laboratory two populations of Plantago maior will be compared. One derives from Sowinski Park and the second from Bielanski Forest. These two sites were chosen because of many differences between them. These are as follows: Sowinski Park Bielanski Forest It is a park It is a forest Surface area: 8.3ha2 Surface area: 130ha2 Created artificially by man Developed naturally Located in the city center Located further from the city center, near the suburbs Frequently visited by people Less frequently visited by people Lots of internal pathways and lawns Lots of trees, rare pathways and lawns Soil is fertilized, grass is regularly cut down Soil is not being feritilized artificially, forest grows widely Figure 1: The part of the map of Warsaw. From GoogleMaps. Legend: Green circle - Sowinski Park Blue circle - Bielanski Forest Pink circle - city center In this laboratory, the square method will be used. In each square the number of plantain, the number of leaves at each plantain will be counted. Moreover, the width of the biggest leaf will be measured. Due to obtain data and calculated value of t-test I will try to judge whether the specification occurred. If yes, possible factors causing this fact will be discussed. Variables Independent: choice of habitats, places on which squares will put. Dependent: number of plantains, number of leaves on plantains, width of the widest leaf on plantains. ...read more.

Middle

4 5 4 3.3 6 3 2.5 7 1 2 8 4 3.4 9 3 3.3 10 3 3.6 11 1 3.4 12 3 2.1 19, pathway 1 3 2.1 2 2 3.2 3 1 1.3 4 3 2.8 5 1 1.4 6 5 4.2 7 7 3.2 8 5 4.5 9 4 7.2 10 2 3 11 4 4.2 20, grassy parts of a pathway 1 4 4.3 2 1 4.7 21, lonely Plantago Major 1 7 8.6 Table 3: The pH of soils in Sowinski Park and Bielanski Forest, in pH scale, �0.1. Location Soil taken from: The pathway Under the lawn From under the lawn located under the trees Sowinski Park 6.2 6.7 6.8 Bielanski Forest 6.5 6.0 6.5 Table 4: The permeability of the soil in the Park and the Forest, in ml per 2 min (through 20g of the soil). Sowinski Park Bielanski Forest 1st sample 2nd sample 11.8 23.0 20.0 Data processing 1. The mean value (eg: of the number of Plantago Major in one square) will be calculated according to the formula: Where: is the mean value; is the sum of all Plantago Major from all investigated squares; is the total number of squares. 2. The standard deviation will be calculated using the programme Excel 2003 according to the formula: Table 5: The average values depicting Plantago major in Sowinski Park and Bielanski Forest. Location Average number of Plantago major in square, �0.01 Average number of leaves at Plantago major, �0.01 The average width of the longest leaf of Plantago major, �0.01 Value SD Value SD Value SD Sowinski Park 6.80 5.78 3.80 2.17 2.38 1.05 Bielanski Forest 7.23 5.98 4.19 2.16 5.18 2.19 Note: The error bars represent the standard deviation which values are presented in Table 5. Table 6: The median values depicting the plantains in the Park and the Forest. The average: Sowinski Park Bielanski Forest ...number of Plantago major per square 6 6 ...number of leaves at Plantago major 3 4 ...width of the longest leaf on Plantago major 2.2 5.0 3. ...read more.

Conclusion

Evaluation 1. It was not clearly stated what to do with Plantago major which were found on the boundary of used square frames. Next time, it should be said whether to count them or not. 2. In many square frames plantains were so numerous that it was difficult to count them precisely. Next time, all plantains should be counted very carefully. Moreover, a method for counting them could be considered, eg. labeling every already counted plantain by putting on in a small piece of coloured paper (and removing it afterwards!). 3. The measurement of leaves was problematic and thus may cause some errors. In the future, a special pad for supporting the leaves while the measurement could be used. 4. We do not have the sufficient means to judge whether the specification of these two populations occurred. Still, the sole t-test cannot be treated as fully trustworthy. To ameliorate this weakness, other tests and statistical means which would investigate the differences between two populations could be used. Moreover, the long-term observations of Plantago major in Park and Forest would enable us to reach more reliable conclusions. 5. The plantains were investigated in one certain part of a Forest. Therefore, it is hard to judge whether the specialization really occurred. In the future, the sample from all over the Forest should be taken. 6. The calculated percentage data is difficult to compare as not equal number of squares were investigated (to prove this statement the graph will percentage values was plotted - Graph 3; it can be observed that obtained results cannot be compared reliably and easily) . For the next time, the equal amount of squares should be investigated both in the Park and the Forest. This would make the percentage data be more reliable and possible to compare trustworthy. 7. It would be very interesting to measure other factors which can influence the appearance and the density of the plantains, for instance the type of soil or amount of rains in the region of the Park and forest. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our International Baccalaureate Biology section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related International Baccalaureate Biology essays

  1. Ecology Open Investigation Does the geographic location affect the biotic and abiotic ...

    The error bar is also shown on the data columns. This graph also shows the units nitrates are measured in and the uncertainty. Graph 1.4 - This graph compares the average of all groups' degree of temperature of Brown Lake and 18 Mile Swamp.

  2. Environmental Factors affecting plant growth

    0 6 0 7 1.5 5 1 0 4 2 4 0.8 0 6.6 1 4.7 1.5 0 3.5 1 2 The table above contains results of the experiment. The experiment was based on what environmental factors affect the plant growth.

  1. Biology- Extended essay. For this research, I investigated the effects of DDT and ...

    directly dependant on the different concentrations of the Azo-Dye solution added to the beaker. III. The opercular rate of the fish in the third investigation will remain directly dependent on the mixture of DDT and Azo-Dye added to the beaker.

  2. Biology Extended Essay 2009

    scurvy; bleeding and swollen gums, wounds and bruises that do not heal.5 Ascorbic acid is very sensitive to chemical and enzymatic oxidation. During food processing, cooking and storage is the period where its content can be loss by coming in touch with oxygen.6 This suggests the reason for depletion of Ascorbic acid content over time in freshly squeezed orange juice.

  1. Should Animals have the same rights as Humans? Both animals and humans exhibit behaviours ...

    But it was published a long time ago and has now been questioned for various reasons including the lack of knowledge of history of the dogs. John B. Watson developed Pavlov's work in 1921 and applied it to human beings.

  2. Sleep is a normal part of human life. Investigate the neurobiological basis of normal ...

    It can affect mood, performance, attention, learning, behaviour, and biological functions. It can sometimes be hard to stay awake and concentrate in class and minimal sleep can contribute to mood swings and behavioural problems. So clearly the solutions to these problems are for parents to impose earlier bedtimes on their

  1. Effect of Detergent on Membrane Permeability

    Therefore, to measure how much the absorbance is changed when beet cells are placed in the original absorbance without the beet, we measured the amount of absorbance of each set solution with the beetroot and subtract them by the amount of absorbance of the original solution without the beet. 1.

  2. Biology Internal Assessment - investigate whether the Window and Notching caterpillar share the same ...

    This would have resulted in them being closer to the midrib, therefore decrease our mean. Thus effecting both the reliability and validity of our results. We could have the random number generator from this website http://www.random.org/integers/ to randomly select a number, we would then count that many leaves working clockwise

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work