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Human variation

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Introduction

Is there a positive correlation between the height and hand span of 16 year old first year high school students? Human beings are different in many ways. The variation can be seen in physical traits such as strength, height, weight, skin color etc or in mental traits such as IQ. Therefore it is possible to measure these different characteristics and compare them with each other or relate them to one another. The aim of this experiment is to test the hypothesis that there is a positive correlation between the length of the hand span and height of a person. For this purpose the hand span and height of the first year high school students will be used. Hand span is the distance that is measured from the tip of the little finger to the thumb as seen in the picture below. Picture 1. Hypothesis: - There is a positive correlation between the length of a person's hand span and height. Materials: - Ruler, measuring meter, notebook, pen Independent variable: - hand span Dependent variable: - height Controlled variables: - age, gender, measurements, sampling Method 1. A first year student of age 16 was chosen in katedralskolan high school. ...read more.

Middle

the shape of the scatter graph indicates that there is a positive correlation between the two variables. Graph 2 shows also a strong correlation between the height and hand span of female students as most of the points are concentrated near the trend line. Some anomalies are present here as well such as a hand span of 19.2�1cm and height of 153.5�1cm. The range of data in Table 3 also shows that females have smaller hand span and height compared to males. The standard deviation calculated in Table 3 shows how widely spread the data points are around the average. The standard deviation for hand span is 1.6 for males and 1.1 for females. This indicates that hand span of the male students is relatively more varied than the female hand span. When it comes to height, the standard deviation for male students was found to be 6.8 while for female it was 6.4. Therefore again there is slightly more variation in the height of the male students compared to the female students. Graph 3 is a scatter graph representation of all the 54 samples measured from both male and female students. The majority of the points are clustered close to the trend line indicating a positive correlation. ...read more.

Conclusion

These two hormones regulate the development, growth, pubertal maturation, and reproductive processes of the body. In this experiment both male and females were used. All were at the age of 16 in which puberty is still taking place. So they have not achieved maximum growth at the time of measurements. It is also the case that females enter puberty earlier than males and even between males and females, the onset of puberty varies greatly. This in turn will greatly affect the results obtained. The timing of puberty and thereby growth of a person is also affected by environmental factors such as diet of a person. Another limitation in this experiment is the measurement of the hand span. The students were asked to place the tip of their little finger on a ruler as seen in picture 1 and stretch their hands. Using this method meant that the measurement relied heavily on the flexibility of the hands being constant amongst all those sampled. This was not the case all the time. Total number of samples was 52 only. Improvements: - instead of using teenagers to test the hypothesis adults of age 21 can be used since they have most likely attained their maximum growth. By taking more samples the uncertainty due to the measurement of the hand span can be reduced. ?? ?? ?? ?? ...read more.

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