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Investigating Macromolecules and their Properties

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12/16/2008 Raza, Ismael, Niyaz, Minhal and Rashiv "Investigating Macromolecules and their Properties" Introduction: Background: There are many nutrients that are present in an organism that provides it energy in order to grow and reproduce. Some nutrients are required in larger amounts compared to others. These nutrients, that are required in larger amounts, are known as macromolecules. Identifying and distinguishing these macromolecules can be beneficial to scientists. Knowing these macromolecules and how they are shaped can help scientists and doctors create healthy diet systems, and discover many diseases that are caused by their deficiencies. With advanced technologies, scientists are constantly trying to develop new ways to identify these molecules. Macromolecules are made up of large and complex organic molecules. They are grouped in four different categories. These are carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids. In this investigation, we will identify different macromolecules and their properties. Problem: Identify and determine the different types of solutions (sugar, protein, starch, and triglyceride) and their properties. Hypothesis: The Biuret reagent (KNaC4H4O6�4H2O) is made up of potassium hydroxide (KOH) and copper (II) sulfate (CuSO4). This blue reagent turns violet in the presence of proteins, and turns pink when combined with short-chain polypeptides (which are simplest form of proteins). ...read more.


The substance that would be absorbed the most by the brown paper, and would allow the most amount of light to pass through, would be the lipid. Note: some substances might give a positive result for more than one test. In this case, we would use our knowledge to distinguish between them. Material required: > Lab aprons > Safety goggles > 15-100ml calibrated test tubes (or 5 but wash it thoroughly) > 100ml of solution 1 > 100ml of solution 2 > 100ml of solution 3 > 100ml of solution 4 > 100ml of distilled water > Biuret Reagent > Iodine solution > Benedict's solution > Test tube holders > Test tube tongs > Eye droppers > Graduated cylinders > Tape and a marker for labeling > Hot water bath apparatus - heating plate, water, and a beaker > Five 4 * 4 inch brown papers Procedure: 1. Clean all the test tube, graduated cylinders, eye droppers and funnels before starting the experiment. 2. Mark the four unknown solutions as solution#1, solution#2, solution#3, and solution#4. 3. Add water as the fifth solution to keep it as a controlled variable. ...read more.


But when Solution # 1 and 2 were compared, we realized that Solution # 2 was the most transparent and we could easily see the light through it. So we can say that Solution # 2 was triglyceride (it is made up of lipids). Solution # 1 was starch Solution # 2 was triglyceride Solution # 3 was sugar Solution # 4 was protein Discussion: Although we had the fixed amount of compounds in the procedure, we didn't use that amount because of time deficiency. The amount was estimated for the compounds but we measured the amount of reagent added. Due to the lack of the time and the inefficiency of the amount added, we could have made small mistakes, but when the results were compared with the hypothesis, they were all correct. The sizes of the test tubes were not the same. Even though we mentioned this as our controlled variable, we did not keep it controlled in the experiment. This was due to the materials that we were provided with. Also the test tubes we were provided with contained soap contamination which might have caused an error in our results. Sources http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Benedict%27s_reagent http://www.madsci.org/posts/archives/2004-12/1102321490.Gb.r.html http://www.geocities.com/auburngirl71/macromolecules.htm http://faculty.clintoncc.suny.edu/faculty/Michael.Gregory/files/Bio%20101/Bio%20101%20Laboratory/Chemical%20Composition%20of%20Cells/Chemical%20Composition%20of%20Cells.htm ?? ?? ?? ?? Biology | Investigating Macromolecules and their Properties 2 ...read more.

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