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Investigating the rate of Enzyme Activity when Catalase is added in a hydrogen peroxide solution

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Introduction

Charlotte Walter Biology SL IB 17-12-2007 Investigating the rate of Enzyme Activity when Catalase is added in a hydrogen peroxide solution. Contents Contents 2 Research Question 3 Theory 3 Dependent and Independent Variables 4 Method - controlling the variables 4 Apparatus 4 Diagram 5 Method 5 Raw Data 6 Processed Data 7 Graphs 1.1 8 Graphs 1.2 9 Graphs 1.3 11 Observations, trends and patterns 12 Calculations 12 Improvements and Reliability 13 Evaluation 13 Compared Values 14 Conclusion 14 Research Question How does the solute concentration of Hydrogen Peroxide affect the enzyme rate of homogenized liver catalyze? Theory The Effect of Catalase1 Liver and other living tissues contain the enzyme catalase. As with all enzymes, catalase of homogenized liver is a protein, meaning that it is synthesized within the cell from building blocks called amino acids . In addition to the amino acids that make up the protein, catalase carries around a heme group. Mostly known as Hemoglobin. In the middle of the heme group sits an iron atom the catalase enzyme uses this iron atom to help it break the bonds in the two molecules of hydrogen peroxide, shifting the atoms around to release two molecules of water and a molecule of oxygen gas Reaction : 2H2O2 --> 2H2O + O2 (fix) The effect of Substrate Concentrations on enzyme activity2 At low substrate concentrations, enzyme activity increases steeply as substrate concentration increases. ...read more.

Middle

Total amount of Foam produced by liver substrate (cm3) 0 0 1 5.05 3 52 5 61.5 7 124 Fig.1.2 Time (seconds) Concentration 0.0 30.0 60.0 90.0 120.0 150.0 180.0 230.0 260.0 0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1 0.0 9.0 4.1 4.5 5.1 5.1 5.1 5.1 5.1 3 0.0 32.5 40.5 43.5 46.0 49.0 49.5 49.5 52.0 5 0.0 39.8 42.5 45.5 48.5 54.8 56.0 58.5 61.5 7 0.0 76.0 94.0 119.5 125.0 124.0 124.0 124.0 124.0 Fig.1.3 Concentration V Max. Rate of Velocity 0 0.000 0.000 1 0.300 0.012 3 1.083 0.043 5 1.325 0.053 7 2.533 0.101 Graphs 1.1 Graphs 1.2 Graphs 1.3 Observations, trends and patterns We can see in Graphs of 1.1 show a rising volume of foam produced. When you add the polynomial line you notice that there is a pattern, namely that the volume will increase by a certain amount when the substrate concentration becomes higher. We can see more patterns in the Graph of 1.2, where you can clearly see that a higher concentration increases the reaction the most in the beginning. What is noticeable is that with each reaction (and different concentrations) the volume has risen most in the first 30 seconds. After this the reaction seems to rise slower, possible because the enzyme starts denaturizing. The higher the concentration the more volume is added in the first 30 seconds. We can see clearly the returning pattern in each concentration. ...read more.

Conclusion

The reaction was exothermic since no heat has been given off and the energy released was greater then the activation energy. The reaction was also visible, and you could see quite clearly that a higher concentration fastened the enzyme activity rate .The enzyme rate differed between 0 and 0.101mM (milliseconds per liter).This leads up to the visible result which is the foam produced. According to graph 1.3 we can see that up till 9% the enzyme activity is still rising, and not showing any appearances of denaturation. We can therefore presume that the enzyme rate will still increase up till a certain point. Where at 9% this was a lot higher then with 5 %, the end result was in amount of foam produced that the one with the concentration of 9% produced far more than 5% though the reaction with the 5% concentration substrate seemed to be going on longer at attempt 1 then at a concentration of 9% of hydrogen peroxide. 1 http://madsci.org/posts/archives/dec96/847573455.Bc.r.html 2 Andrew Allot - IB Study Guide Biology for Standard and Higher Level. Page 18/19 3 KM in the 10-25 mM range ( took the highest) --> http://www-saps.plantsci.cam.ac.uk/records/rec136.htm 4 Internet site : http://www.steve.gb.com/images/science/michaelis_constant_defintion.png 5 Activation energy: The energy needed to break bonds within the reactant. Later during this process energy is given off as new bonds are made. ~ Andrew Allot - IB Study Guide Biology for Standard and Higher Level. Page 69 ?? ?? ?? ?? ...read more.

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