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LAB-What infuences blood pressure

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

The aim of the experiment is to determine whether obesity or smoking influences blood pressure or not. Hypothesis Obesity is one of the factors influencing increase of systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Nowadays, obesity is a big problem among mankind especially in well-developed countries. The statistics show that in this countries (e.g. USA, UK) majority of people faces cardiovascular problems. Is it rather due to unhealthy lifestyle or inappropriate diet? This question is difficult to answer, but probably the mixture of these factors causes so many diseases. The earliest the disease is determined, the greater chances of total healing. So, to investigate cardiovascular problems measuring of blood pressure is in order. Than, further investigations or therapy can be subscribed to individual beings. These problem is no longer typical for elderly but to youth as well. The teenagers should also visit doctors and check their health conditions. Theoretical background Blood pressure is the force developed by blood pushing against the blood vessels. The systolic pressure is produced by contraction of ventricles ( the closer of bicuspid valves) and the diastolic is the pressure in arteries (after closing of semi-lunar valves). The normal pressure for a healthy young person is 120 over 80 mm Hg. The pressure is affected by: - cardiac output, - resistance to blood flow, - general state of blood vessels and heart. Narrowing and hardening of arteries, weakening of artery walls, damage of kidneys are examples of problems. There are many factors that influence state of cardiovascular system. For example obesity causes narrowing of lumen of blood vessels, due to accumulation of cholesterol. But, how to determine who is obese? The Body Mass Index is to help, due to determined intervals of appropriate ratio of mass divided by square of height. The formula is given below: The good ratio value is between 19-25. If someone exceeds 25, than there is higher probability of obesity and cardiovascular problems. ...read more.

Middle

70 140 + 67,4 174 77 134 79 135 78 141 + 76,2 166 80 153 86 138 86 142 + 62,8 181 70 102 55 98 58 These are the collected data. They can be used to the further calculations. The BMI is for sure to be calculated from the formula given in theoretical background: Mass [kg] / (height [m])2. The usual way to illustrate the BMI on the graph is to make it as height against weight. Thus, certain region represents certain tendencies as shown on the graph 1. The calculation of body mass index are given in tables 2.a. and 3.a. The graphs 1.a. and 1.b. presents the distribution of these relations for females and males appropriately. Graph 1.a. The females BMI graph. The relation between height against weight. Graph 1.b. The males BMI graph. The relation between height against weight. Table 1.b. The comparison of both graphs 1.a. and 1.b. due to BMI (height against weight). Criteria / Sex Females Males Destitution of the points The points are concentrated in one region almost. There is a great dispersion of the points. Tendencies in case of height The majority of heights is in interval: 1,53 - 1,72 m Heights are above 1,70 m, circa to 1,90 m. Tallest person 1,88 m 1,94 m Lowest person 1,51 m 1,69 m Tendencies in case of weight The points are concentrated in the region between 47 to 70 kg. The localization is in the interval from 54 to 90kg. Slimmest person 47 kg 54 kg Fattest person 70 kg 90 kg The table 1.b. that compares BMI values fro males and females is very valuable, because it shows the tendencies of the group. The graphs are similar to the one presented in the theoretical background (graph 1), where the intervals BMI intervals are presented. The results are quite similar to each other, there is no great dispersion. ...read more.

Conclusion

76-80 132,1 79,7 81-85 128,6 80,0 208,6 81-85 130,1 78,5 493,7 297,9 791,6 (O-E)^2 / E 0,053766 0,089104 0,001323 0,002193 0,001895 0,00314 c.v. < X^2 0,0569836 0,094437 0,151421 0,352 < 0,151 s.l. 5% d.f. 3 c.v. 0,352 ho accepted INDEPENDENT VARIABLES FOR BMI INTERVAL 25-29,9 males OBSERVED EXPECTED systolic diastolic systolic diastolic 81-85 132,50 74,50 207,00 81-85 128,673 78,33038 86-90 117,50 75,00 192,50 86-90 119,6596 72,84347 96-100 134,67 84,67 219,33 96-100 136,3395 82,99741 384,67 234,17 618,83 (O-E)^2 / E 0,1138251 0,1873069 0,0389776 0,063844 0,0205243 0,0335724 0,1733269 0,284723 0,45805 D.F. 2 c.v.<X^2 S.L. 5% C.V. 0,103 0,103<0,46 ho accepted INDEPENDENT VARIABLES CONCLUSIONS EVALUATION Procedure * The group was from one school only, hence some common habits, e.g. smoking, etc. The best was to choose people from many different surroundings. So that, maybe 20 people from many schools in different parts of city. * What is more, narrowing the investigation only to one age group 18-years old people does not show the tendencies among Polish teenagers completely. There should be many age groups chosen and investigated. Begining with kindergarten. * The data was not recorded at the same day, but in 1 week period, which false results due to different atmospheric conditions as well as patient's conditions. The collection should be made during one day only and probably in similar hours. * Everyone should participate in blood pressure measurement before the meals. So that, real state of organism can be presented. * * Results * The 1st measurement is bigger in many groups of pupils that were investigated, perhaps due to physical effort connected with school architecture and the classroom where blood pressure was investigated. After coming to nursery's room everyone should rest at least 5 minutes before 1st measurement. So that, both measurements are to be similar, hence more accurate and probable. * Choosing of uniform group in the same age caused no correlation between waist size in the BMI intervals and blood pressure to reveal. Only in one case, the scientific data was confirmed. ...read more.

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