• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Molecular Genetics: differentiating between various molecular databases

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

An Investigation into Molecular Genetics Differentiating between Various Molecular Databases This unit we looked at molecular genetics and their importance in human life. The experiment was mostly to find out how closely related two species are and how we can identify the differences. Using various protein sequences, we were able to compare and distinguish among various species. This report mainly focuses on relating four different species from the rodent family: Chinchilla, Guinea Pig, Crested porcupine and Hamster. Research question How are the four species; Chinchillas, Guinea Pigs, Crested porcupines, Hamsters of the rodent family related to each other? What are the similarities and differences among the four amino acid sequences and how can they be measured? To what extent are the four species different from each other? The independent variables of this experiment were the four species: Chinchilla (Chinchilla Brevicaudata), Guinea Pigs (Cavia Porcellus), crested Porcupine (Hystrix Cristata) and Hamsters (Cricetidae). The dependant variables of this experiment were the amino acid sequences of the four sequences. Using the database search capacities on internet, the entire amino acid sequences were found and later using the Fasta programming on internet, the four species were compared with each other. All the data was then collected in a table. The following are the control variables of the experiment: * The protein of the amino acid sequences was a control variable. ...read more.

Middle

5 % of total 5/86 = 5.9% Number of different AA ( ) 36 % of total 36/86 = 41.9% Table 6: Comparing Guinea Pig and Crested Porcupine Species Guinea Pig (Cavia Porcellus) Crested Porcupine (Hystrix Cristata) Number of AA in Beta chain 110 51 Amino Acid Sequence MALWMHLLTVLALLALWGPNTGQAFVSRHLCGSNLVETLYSVCQDDGFFYIPKDRRELEDPQVEQTELGMGLGAGGLQPLALEMALQKRGIVDQCCTGTCTRHQLQSYCN FVNQHLCGSHLVEALYLVCGNDGFFYRPKAGIVDQCCTGVCSLYQLQNYCN Aligned Sequence 10 20 30 40 50 60 MALWMHLLTVLALLALWGPNTGQAFVSRHLCGSNLVETLYSVCQDDGFFYIPKDRRELEDPQVEQ ::..:::::.:::.:: :: .::::: :: FVNQHLCGSHLVEALYLVCGNDGFFYRPKA----------- 70 80 90 100 110 TELGMGLGAGGLQPLALEMALQKRGIVDQCCTGTCTRHQLQSYCN :::::::::.:. .:::.::: ------------------------GIVDQCCTGVCSLYQLQNYCN 40 50 % Identity 43.0% identity (53.5% similar) in 86 aa overlap Number of similar AA pairs (:) 37 % of total 37/110 = 33.6% Number of conservative AA pairs (.) 9 % of total 9/110 = 8.2% Number of different AA ( ) 64 % of total 64/110 = 58.2% Table 7: Concluding Table Species Chinchilla Guinea Pig Crested Porcupine Hamster Chinchilla N/A 64.0 % identity (79.1 % similar) 45.8% identity (54.2% similar) 52.3% identity (58.1% similar) Guinea Pig 64.0 % identity (79.1 % similar) N/A 43.0% identity (53.5% similar) 39.5% identity (52.3% similarity) Crested Porcupine 45.8% identity (54.2% similar) 43.0% identity (53.5% similar) N/A 86.3% identity (96.1% similar) Hamster 52.3% identity (58.1% similar) 39.5% identity (52.3% similarity) 86.3% identity (96.1% similar) N/A The first six tables above compare the four species and as we can see, the last table summarizes the overall data in tables 1-6. Table 7 suggests: > The order of the three species closer to the Chinchilla is: Guinea Pig, Hamster and Porcupine. ...read more.

Conclusion

However, the evidence of two insulin genes in other rodent species other than rat and mouse is negative or week. A hamster has only one insulin gene even though the presence of two insulins in hamster pancreas is reported. Also, only one gene has been found in the guinea pig genome. This suggests that the guinea pig and hamster are somewhat related but not completely which is another reason why they have at least 39.5% of resemblance. Many scientists also suggest the presence of pig/rat-type insulin in the cells of a guinea pig caused by very ancient gene duplication. This could be another reason why the four species are so different from each other. Most of the results above that I achieve do not support my hypothesis. In future, I would use a larger variety of species for my project, so that could learn more about the differences among different species. I would like to also use a different amino acid protein for my experiment such as hemoglobin so that I could learn more about the differences among the different species caused by different types of proteins. This will help me discover and understand key factors affecting the differences among species; no matter what family they belong to. Next, I would also try to use sequences of equal lengths so that it is a fair test. To conclude, I don't think that the method requires any changes and cold be redone by the changes made above because the websites I used for my experiment gave me accurate results. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our International Baccalaureate Biology section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related International Baccalaureate Biology essays

  1. Penicillin - its discovery, properties and uses.

    At first, he discarded a culture plate that had been lying in the open air for some weeks. On it a blob of mould had interfered with the development of the staphylococci that had been sown on the jellied broth.

  2. Independent Research Project Vital Lung Capacity

    The difference between the experimental groups is considered to be statistically significant. Conclusion and Evaluation Conclusion: While following proper procedure, five participants were chosen to be part of the data after having their vital capacity measured through a spirometer. Each individual had to record three trials of their vital capacity

  1. IB Genetic Unit Notes

    This is because a female with normal colour vision may be homozygous for the normal colour vision allele (XBXB) or she can be heterozygous and a carrier of the colour-blind gene (XBXb) For a female to be colour-blind, but X chromosomes must carry it and therefore be homozygous recessive (XbXb).

  2. Biology independent investigation, Ecology

    has no comparison so its change in mass cannot be found, and this applies for the dry root weight as well. The experiment was also allowed 14 days of growth instead of 10 days. To measure the fresh change in mass the mass was of the seed was taken (remove excess water and perlite)

  1. Research Project . Should Research Into Biological Warfare Continue?

    The most effective way of using anthrax as a weapon is to release it in aerosol form, i.e. as a spray that is held in suspension from a bomb or canister. Once there are Anthrax spores in the lungs nine out of ten victims will die but once caught Anthrax is not that contagious.

  2. Sleep is a normal part of human life. Investigate the neurobiological basis of normal ...

    The lack of information in textbooks may be due to the fact that sleep research is only recently gaining recognition. A great deal remains to be learned through scientific studies, including an answer to the key question, what is the true function of sleep?

  1. Biology Internal Assessment - investigate whether the Window and Notching caterpillar share the same ...

    vegetation around which could cause uneven distribution and hence competition of the caterpillar species. The surrounding area where we were testing is sometimes sprayed with pesticides If pesticides were used on the plants then they could have impacted on the caterpillars.

  2. Biotechnology Assignment: Genetic Screening/Testing

    Research testing: Research testing includes finding unknown genes, learning how genes work and advancing our understanding of genetic conditions. The results of testing done as part of a research study are usually not available to patients or their healthcare providers.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work