• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Outline the use of polymerase chain reaction to copy and amplify minute quantities of DNA and Describe the application of DNA profiling to determine paternity and also in forensic investigations

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Genetic engineering and biotechnology Outline the use of polymerase chain reaction to copy and amplify minute quantities of DNA: PCR basically gives researchers the opportunity to produce large amount of DNA sequence copies with out using up limited samples. This is done through 6 cycles where a piece of DNA is selected, raised to about 95 degrees Celsius, add primers, polymerase and nucleotides, allow the primers to bind to the DNA by lowering the temperature to 53 degrees and eventually repeat the cycle of temperature changes about 20 times. State that, in gel electrophoresis, fragments of DNA move in an electric field and are separated according to their size: Gel electrophoresis is a procedure utilized in biochemistry and molecular biology (also used in situations such as crimes scenes and DNA testing) ...read more.

Middle

State that gel electrophoresis DNA is used in DNA profiling: In a crime scene for example, Investigators might find signs of the suspects DNA. However, a test tube full of DNA all looks the same, so it is not possible to tell the DNA coding by just looking at it. Gel electrophoresis is a technique scientists utilize to find out exactly what DNA they have in order to determine whether it relates to the suspects DNA or not. This technique is done by separating DNA molecules by size. Describe the application of DNA profiling to determine paternity and also in forensic investigations: Each individual (excluding identical twins) ...read more.

Conclusion

Think of it as a partially permeable membrane where smaller cells have the ability to diffuse through the membrane as larger cells are prevented due to their surface area to volume ratio. At the end of the test the results are compared. Due to the fact that half the genetic material is from its mother, half of the pattern will be similar to the child's. If the father is the child's biological father then the rest of the pattern will be similar as well. In a forensic investigation the same method is carried out. However instead of gathering DNA samples from parents and children, they gather DNA from suspects. For example in the case of rape there might be remaining sperm cells around the victims vagina. This can be collected, analysed and used against the suspect. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our International Baccalaureate Biology section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related International Baccalaureate Biology essays

  1. The Use of Recombinant DNA Technology

    A vector is a self-replicating DNA molecule for example a plasmid or viral DNA. Plasmids are like a DNA circle, which is found in bacteria for example in Escherichia coli. These plasmids used as vectors have to have a genetic marker on them so that they can actually be identified,

  2. Research Question: Which method of DNA extraction (using a centrifuge or not) will yield ...

    Add 40 mL isopropyl alcohol to the graduated cylinder. 9. Wait for five minutes until a precipitate (DNA) appears. 10. Record the mass of the glass stirring rod.

  1. Lab of genetics.You will determine your phenotype and try to determine your genotype for ...

    Record your phenotype and genotype in the table. 12. Create the table in an easy way to record your phenotypes and genotypes, in addition, include 10 women and 10 men to investigate your own culture features. You can be included in those 10 men or 10 women.

  2. Molecular Genetics: differentiating between various molecular databases

    46 % of total 46/51 = 90.2% Number of conservative AA pairs (.) 5 % of total 5/51 = 9.8% Number of different AA ( ) 2 % of total 2/51 = 3.9% Table 3: Comparing Crested Porcupine and Chinchilla Species Crested Porcupine (Hystrix Cristata)

  1. IB Genetic Unit Notes

    4.3.2: Determine the genotypes and phenotypes of the offspring of a monohybrid cross using a Punnet grid. The grid should be labelled to include parental genotypes, gametes, and both offspring genotype and phenotype. 4.3.3: State that some genes have more than two alleles (multiple alleles).

  2. Should Animals have the same rights as Humans? Both animals and humans exhibit behaviours ...

    Pavlov went on to condition the dogs to produce saliva in response to other stimuli, such as sound. He presented them with the meat powder and auditory stimulus together several times. The table below shows that the dogs responded by associating the auditory stimulus with receiving food.

  1. Research Notes - Genetic Engineering & Biotechnology

    it copies the DNA into millions of identical segments for lab use. > Use: > Usually used in a crime scene. If the suspect has a few cells left behind such as cheek cells, skin cells, or saliva, the machines are able to reproduce the DNA.

  2. The Story of the Discovery of DNA

    It was during this period that she produced additional photographs; yet she was not ready to put forth conviction in the idea of a helix. She kept comprehensive lab notes, and she noted to herself frequently that she did think that there was a possibility that it could be a

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work