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ProblemWhat kind of roles the factors of pH levels and temperature have on various reaction rates. What roles inhibitors and activations play on enzymatic reactions.

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Introduction

John Sciullo Period-4 12-09-09 AP Lab 2 Enzyme Catalysis Abstract: AP Lab Enzymes, introduced us to the catalyzing proteins called, enzymes, focusing on the effects that various variables have on enzyme reaction rate. To further our knowledge of enzymes, we used a variety of chemicals to stimulate different conditions. Using sulfuric acid (H2SO4) we were able to stimulate an acidic environment. By boiling water in one part of the experiment, we were able to see the effects of temperature on reaction rate. Overall we tested a wide array of variables, investigating their effects on reaction rate. At the end of the experiment we were able to come up with the following viable conclusion; the variables that had the most significant impact on reaction rate had to do with changes in pH levels of the solutions, and the temperature. Splitting off into groups we began the lab by observing a reaction in which catalase was placed into a solution, releasing bubbles of O2. This reaction introduced us to enzymes and their activities. Shortly after, we began investigating the effects various variables had on the reaction rate. In demonstrating the effect of boiling on enzymatic activity, we were able to learn that sharply increasing the temperature of the enzymatic solution, the reaction rate lowered. As a group, we inferred that the high temperatures caused the enzymes, proteins, to unravel and denature. We came to the same conclusion upon testing the effects of pH. The last sections of the lab called upon us to investigate the differences between the uncatalysed rate of H2O2 decomposition and the enzyme-catalyzed rate of H2O2 decomposition. ...read more.

Middle

5. Predict the effect that lowering the temperature would have on the rate of enzyme activity. Explain your prediction. Lower the temperature would have profound effects on the rate of enzyme activity. Lowering the temperature, the rate of the reaction would slow, as temperature, along with pH and salt concentration, is a factor that can cause changes in rate of activity. Lowering the temp, would greatly decrease the rate of the enzyme activity. 6. Design a controlled experiment to test the effect of varying pH, temperature, or enzyme concentration. A good experiment to test the varying effects of pH, temperature, and salt concentration on proteins can be just like the one outlined in the lab manual. Splitting the experiment into three different parts, students would be able to individually see the different effects various variables have on the rate of enzyme activity. Testing temperature, students should investigate the rate of reaction at three distinct temperatures; 0�C, 40�C and 80�C. Comparing the different rates, students would be able to come up with a conclusion on the effects of temperature. Salt concentration can be investigated in a very similar fashion. Students, given three different solutions, each with varying salt concentrations (0 M, 2 M, 5 M) would be able to conclude the effects salt concentration has on enzyme activity. pH can also be tested in similar fashion as the two previous variables. Having three different solutions differing in acidity/alkalinity, students would be able to clearly see the effects of varying pH levels. ...read more.

Conclusion

Having a lack of control variables, the lab remains subject to the countless ever-changing variables. A person performing this experiment in the Arctic will attain tremendously different results than one performing it in the Mojave Desert. Fortunately solutions and simple improvements exist to better the procedure and rid it of the problems, limitations, and weaknesses outlined previously. A simple solution to the pipette problem would be to acquire and use droppers. In doing so we would be provided accurate, viable quantitative data that would support our ultimate conclusion. Had we been supplied droppers, we would have been able to add a further dimension to our conclusion. A similar solution can be used to solve the problem of a lack of barometers. Although we found a way to bypass the need for one, it was a minor inconvenience and caused us to make some changes to the procedure. However, our conclusion would in no way change had we been given access to barometers. Lastly, to rid the lab of any weaknesses, the procedure would have to be changed to access and outline the wide array of variables that must be controlled to assure the validity of the data. The skills and knowledge gained from this lab enabled us to better understand life's biological processes. The knowledge we gained can be applied to real life situations, and often is, in the case of biologists and other professionals in the scientific field. A pharmacist trying to achieve a reaction needs to have a deep understanding of the workings of enzymes and other catalysts. The importance of enzymes can be seen throughout the world, without them, life as we know it would not exist. ?? ?? ?? ?? 1 ...read more.

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