• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Research Notes - Genetic Engineering & Biotechnology

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Genetic Engineering & Biotechnology PART 1 Recombinant DNA Technology > Identification and isolation of the desired gene or DNA fragment to be cloned. > Insertion of the isolated gen in a suitable vector. > Introduction of this vector into a suitable organism or cell called host (transformation). > Selection of the transformed host cell, and > Multiplication /expression/ integration followed by expression of the introduced gene in the host. A brief description of these steps is given in the following sections. > Uses: > With the recombinant DNA technology, scientists have been able to generate artificial enzymes and chemicals found inside humans to treat those suffering from their deficiency. > Scientists have developed a number of advances that can be used to prevent plants from dying to insects, insecticides, herbicides and even freezing. Gene Transfer Using Plasmids- E Coli must be used as an example > Gene transfer: when a gene is taken from organism A's DNA and then placed into organism B's DNA which then creates an effect for that certain gene. > Extraction of that gene is usually taken out by the molecular level with computer. ...read more.

Middle

DNA Profiling (DNA Fingerprinting) - include paternity and forensic investigations > DNA profiling: The matching of 2 segments of DNA to each other with aid from a gel electrophoresis chart. > Match is found by looking at the DNA patterns, lines and shading from the chart. Allows scientists to determine if the DNA is from one or two people. > Use: > For us to identify the clues for a crime scene. The process helps match DNA of the suspect to the criminals and provide concrete proof. This process is usually referred to DNA finger printing. Gene therapy- ex vivo and in vivo > Ex vivo and in vivo: the processes in which you surgically remove the diseased cells form an organism, and then replace them with the correct DNA in cultures. > The cell is then put back onto the organism i.e. liver cells replaced after Jaundice. > Ex vivo is gene therapy to the whole organism or animal > In vivo is to specific cells or tissue in an organism or animal. Both correct the old DNA from the diseased DNA. > > Use: > Simplest method to fixed damaged cells b/c it requires no drugs and capitalizes on the bodies regular healing of healthy DNA. ...read more.

Conclusion

Even though many researchers are against the idea, they see promising future in therapeutic cloning. GMO's 5 uses for transgenic bacteria: > Hepatitis B vaccine > Tissue plasminogen activator > Insulin > Human growth hormone > Interferon Several uses with specific examples for transgenic plants: > Parasite resistance to many crops. > Allows tomatoes to be resistance to cold temperature because of GM with arctic fish. > The ability to grow more versatile food in larger areas for cheaper prices. This is done by playing with the genes of i.e. corn and patenting and corn type with good genes. > Several uses with specific examples for transgenic animals * Transgenic sheep can produce factor IX and help people with haemophilia. The IX factor can help increase creation of protein. * List the potential benefits and possible harmful effects of one example > GM are more versatile, and require less fertilizer than organic. > Farmers gain control of foods that are given to their livestock. > They have in their farm. They can get more money per GM crop than non GM crop. > The long term effects are unknown because this is a new type of research. > GM crops become invasive, dominant species. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our International Baccalaureate Biology section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related International Baccalaureate Biology essays

  1. DNA Strawberry Extraction Lap

    This, at a molecular level, cannot be seen with the naked eye. It can only be seen when the cell is in prophase of mitosis, meaning that the DNA has folded itself to form chromatin. The strawberry DNA that was extracted could be seen with the naked eye because it

  2. The effect on osmosis on the egg shell

    These notable dissimilarities are visible on Graphs 1-6 which present results for each of measurements. Actually the greatest differences occurred for set in which egg was immersed in distilled water. It is also proved by the ranges shown in Tables 2-4.

  1. IB Genetic Lab

    and height, collected by surveying them in person Gender Age Length of arm-span (� 0.1cm) Height (� 0.1cm) F 8 134.0 133.6 F 5 109.7 112.1 F 9 132.1 133.0 F 12 145.0 144.5 F 17 172.0 171.2 F 15 161.5 157.0 F 16 184.0 182.3 F 16 170.0 170.1

  2. Genetics NOTES

    a particular characteristic - Capital letters are used to indicate dominance - Co-dominance is the expression of both alleles in a heterozygous individual - Incomplete dominance is a situation where neither gene dominates the other nor both exercise an influence on the individual.

  1. Gene Therapy

    The remarkable thing about this technique is that the retrovirus dies after injecting the diseased and affected cell with the new therapeutic DNA. Retroviruses are a safe and effective vector to use for gene therapy as it provides long-lasting effects.

  2. Independent Research Project Vital Lung Capacity

    Then, once the spirometer is clean, attach a supplied mouthpiece onto the blowing tube of the spirometer to avoid any contagious afflictions from one participant to another. Next comes the actual measuring of data. First, make sure that the indicator located at the top of the spirometer is clearly set to 0ml.

  1. IB Biology notes on infection and the body's responses.

    cytotoxic T-cells bind to and produce chemicals that destroy cells that present the particular antigen Here is an animation: http://glencoe.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/0035456775/student_view0/chapter33/cytotoxic_t-cell_activity_against_target_cells.html b. activated helper T-cell binds to B cells that recognize the same antigen i. there are many parts of the antigen that can be recognized by a T cell, called epitopes ii.

  2. Genetic engineering has been a controversial topic

    Genetic engineering had had a positive impact on society with its variety of applications. Agriculture and medicine are the two areas which make use of the genetic engineering techniques the most. In gene therapy, genes are used to treat or prevent diseases, effectively replacing the use of drugs or surgery.[3]

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work