• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Should CRISPR-Cas9 be used to revive extinct species?

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

´╗┐Should CRISPR-Cas9 be used to revive extinct species? The rapid loss of species that we are experiencing in our century is estimated by experts to be between 1,000 to 10,000 times higher than the natural extinction rate. Horrifying statistics suggest that the current extinction rates sum up to a thousand times higher than they previously were before human existence and that out of the 100,000,000 different animal species that live on this planet, a minimum of 10,000 species get extinct every year raising many questions on what causes these figures to increase dramatically. Factually, the main reason is due to the sabotage humans enforce on our natural eco-system. Many Factors as pollution, burning fossil fuels, and deforestation all contributed together to create an unstable environment for the uprising number of various species. Scientists believe that we are entering a new era of mass extinction called the Holocene Extinction era which is defined as an extinction phase caused by human?s influence upon nature that leads to its destruction. Scientists have been trying to solve this problem through? Breeding programs? by finding the best matches between animals to generate the right offspring and as the same time to preserve a high level of genetic and demographic diversity as well. ...read more.

Middle

as well as controlling how much protein should be produced. All these elements in the genome are processed through an intermediate RNA stage known as the transcriptome. As Birds genomes contain 17,000 encoded elements interspersed on different chromosomes, different tissues in their bodies express different subsets of these genes therefore to discover and map them all scientists sequence RNA from multiple tissues. Once the RNA is sequenced, the resulting reads can be mapped to the DNA reference assembly to identify and map the positions of genes and regulating elements. Accordingly, after information is obtained, we compare and contrast the differences between the genomes of the two pigeons. Once the differences are identified, codes will be synthesized through a process known as DNA printing ? making the genetic code into viable DNA molecules that can be utilized to edit the genomes of band tailed pigeons . https://lh3.googleusercontent.com/URh8DReqxHb4VPkIzg_0ol5AjyAwuCqG3oIICZEWCU8aOe6FmNWGI1RJja3eYFFOuSRyr4BGo4udqdexgt_xIAk3qCd3crQPn0H6ICtCNRtBJuIE2D40WUsiUgsWaIfErJYWbT6cHOQSGgDrkA Finally,The primordial germ cells in the Band tailed pigeon are isolated from its embryo, then grown in a culture where they are engineered. That?s when the Crispr-cas9 gene comes handy and uses its function to cut off the band-tailed pigeon?s gene where the homologous recombination (the cell?s own DNA repair mechanism) ...read more.

Conclusion

Pros There are positive aspects for this solution too .Scientifically speaking we can save up 0.1% of species yearly via de-extinction. We can?t deny the fact that bringing extinct species back to life increases biodiversity, fulfills missing ecological niches and important for the overall functioning of an ecosystem. For example the giant ground-sloths fed on large foods and nuts, these fruits and nuts such as avocados relied on those sloths for seed dispersal, Passenger Pigeon is known as the ecosystem engineer sewing different parts of habitat dynamics that eastern biomes depend on on. By de-extinction many animals could help restore long lost ecological patterns. Conclusion CRISPR cas-9 technology is far more accurate than other techniques such as cloning that produce genetically analogous organism through asexual reproduction .Cloning has a 40% chance of working compared to CRISPR. . Not onlyUsing CRISPR-Cas9 technology will reduce unintended mutations and unwanted errors it also proved to be more practical and efficient comparing to other techniques used to de-extinct animals. Finally, despite the environmental disadvantages, these problems would resolve over time once humans map out some environments that could potentially be similar to the extinct animal?s previous environment. Furthermore, he ecological benefits this process has to offer definitely override the disadvantages and CRISPR-Cas9 should definitely be used to de-extinct animals. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our International Baccalaureate Biology section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related International Baccalaureate Biology essays

  1. Lion King-The Ecological study

    He suffers quite a shock of being pushed down from height. Thus he is weakened. Unfortunately, the hyena packs got together and surround the fallen king. They were there for revenging on him. They did so because Scar promised the hyenas "they will never go hungry again" but nothing happed after he claimed the throne.

  2. IB Genetic Unit Notes

    Comparison of DNA from suspect and sample. 4.4.4: Describe the application of DNA profiling to determine paternity and also in forensic investigations. Paternity profiling Forensic Investigations To determine parentage. Child's DNA is taken and that of parents as it is believed that a child's DNA comes from the parents therefore there should be matches.

  1. Pros and Cons of GMO crops

    As we can see, the use of genetic engineering has increased rapidly in developed countries mainly due to the reason that these countries are capable of affording such expensive technology. The increase in use of this technology does not seem very high in developing countries as these countries are not entirely capable of affording such expensive scientific equipment.

  2. Should Animals have the same rights as Humans? Both animals and humans exhibit behaviours ...

    In respect of instinctive behaviour animals and humans have some similarities. Human babies have a number of instinctive reflexes such as the swimming reflex and the moro or startle reflex. Adults also have these reflex responses for example if a person stands on a pin they will instinctively jerk their foot away and shout in pain .

  1. A Local Ecosystem, Patterns in Nature,Life on Earth,The Australian Biota ...

    studied Predator and prey population numbers are closely related and potentially unstable. If there is too much predation, the number the number in each prey population will decrease, or one or more prey species may disappear altogether. These changes are followed by a decrease in the predator population, or the predators will attack a different prey species.

  2. Penicillin - its discovery, properties and uses.

    Glancing at it again, Fleming rescued the plate from the bath of disinfectant in which it was about to be immersed. Six years before, he had discovered a substance called lysozyme - a substance found in tears, mucus and saliva, which had shown a similar capacity to kill off bacteria.

  1. Environmental Mangement - Upland Burning in Ireland and the Effects of the Heritage Bill ...

    The initial hazard-reduction burn requires exacting conditions of humidity, wind, and temperature to insure objectives will be achieved and safety measures are adhered too (Nugent, n.d.). Prescribed fires also remove the residue from logging practices, controls disease, maintain natural succession of flora communities, and reduce the need for herbicide and pesticide use.

  2. Biotechnology Assignment: Genetic Screening/Testing

    Genetic determinism implies a fatalistic attitude toward health and disease. It can be used to justify bigotry and to perpetuate racial or ethnic inequalities. Risks and more limitations: Interpreting results: The results of genetic tests are not always straightforward, which often makes them challenging to interpret and explain.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work