• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month
  1. 1
  2. 2
  3. 3
  4. 4
  5. 5
  6. 6
  7. 7
  8. 8
  9. 9
  10. 10
  11. 11
  12. 12
  13. 13
  14. 14
  15. 15
  16. 16
  17. 17

The Effects of Salinity on Wheat Germination

Extracts from this document...


Biology Practical BIOLOGY Student Name Biology Level Yr 10 preparatory Teacher Investigation To investigate the effects of salinity on the germination of wheat plants. 1.0 Design 1.1 Defining the problem 1.1.1 Focus/Research Question Does salinity affect the time it takes for wheat to germinate and then the rate at which it grows from that point onwards? 1.1.2 Hypothesis Germinating wheat seed in a solution of 0% salt content, 2% salt content, and 5% salt content will have the shortest, longer and then the longest germination times, respectively and then growing the shoots in a solution of 0% salt content, 2% salt content, and 5% salt content will have the most growth, less growth and the least growth respectively on a day-by-day basis from the seed's germination as measured by height for the five days after germination within a reasonable range defined as within the first 7 days. 1.1.3 Background Information/Theory Salinity in water used to irrigate plants and soil salinity can have a considerable effect on the intensive agriculture of wheat plant germination and growth (Effect of salts on germination of seeds and growth of young plants of Hordeum vulgare, Triticum aestivum, Cicer arietinum and Brassica juncea. Mer, R.K., P.K. Prajith, D.H. Pandya and A.N. Pandey, 2000). These marked adverse affects take place on a cellular level by affecting cellular diffusion thus affecting the mechanisms of osmosis and interfering with the ionic status of the permeable membranes that surround each of our cells (CiNii.co.jp, Latest Edition, effect of salt concentrations of various plants, website: http://ci.nii.ac.jp/naid/110000978592/). Ion concentration is central to the process of osmosis and excess of certain ions such as NaCl can affect nutrient transfer through the cell (Biology for the IB Diploma, C.J. Clegg, 2007). Indeed, the most possible cause of varietal difference most likely evolves ion transport properties and cellular compartementation (Causes of Varietal differences in Salt tolerance. In: International congress of plant physiology, Munns, R., 1988). ...read more.


The seeds appear to be growing a root system and are attempting to grow upwards and towards the sunlight. 8 Similar observations can be made as have been made previously can be made again. 9 Again similar observations. 10 Again similar observations 11 Some water may have leaked in through the window, however all seeds appeared to have been affected in equal measure. 12 The presence of ants has been observed however this does not appear to have affected growth or health of plant. No visible changes have been made to the plants and the ants do not appear to have attempted to consume any of the germinating seeds. As soon as the ants' presence was observed they were removed. 13 The seeds appear to have reached to raw limit of growth without some form of nutrition in the form of soil. 14 The seeds' growth appears to be slowing perhaps due to their lack of nutrients. Photos One growing shoot (length 12 cms, photo taken on Day 14 of experiment 0% number 3). Apparent Mould (difficult to see in this grainy picture but manifests itself in the form of the strange whitish brown halo around the clearly darker outline of the seed, photo taken Day 14 of the experiment 5% number 8, not having germinated) 2.1.2. Raw Data and Processing Raw Data Germination times for 0%, 2% and 5% solutions Table: Uncertainty � 1day Day 1 Day 2 Day 3 Day 4 Day 5 Day 6 Day 7 Day 8 Day 8-13 Day 14 x 0% (n1) 0% (n5) 0% n10) 2% (n1) 5% (n3) 2% (n9) 5% (n4) x x x 0% (n6) 0% (n4) 2% (n2) 2% (n3) 5% (n10) 5% (n7) x x x x 0% (n3) 0% (n2) 2% (n4) 5% (n2) x x x x x x x 0% (n9) 2% n10) x x x x x x x x 0% (n8) ...read more.


In addition, not controlling for the weather may have had all sorts of unusual effects on the wheat seeds. A recommendation for preventing this would be to artificially mimic as many elements of their ideal natural environment. The weakness in determining when the seeds had actually germinated was that it was difficult to tell when the shoots actually came out. This could be better determined if they were checked more regularly say every half a day to see if germination had taken place. This would lead to more precise measurements of germination times thereby leading to more precise results which can aid in evaluating the value of the results. The seeds that were used in this experiment may have had individual genetic component differences which may have affected the outcome of the experiment. If all the seeds were specially grown so that they all had exactly the same genetic components then this would offer far better results. 3.2.3 Significance of weaknesses on experimental results It does not seem that the weaknesses had any real noticeable effect on the results as the results seem to all support the hypothesis. However this may simply be due to the random effects of chaos theory which may be leading up to see causality where there is none due to all the random effects of factors which have not been controlled which on their own are not statically significant but together have affected the outcome of the experiment. It would not seem though that this is a likely situation. Further empirical testing of the reliability and further replication of these results is required and to be expected before the acceptance of any theory and hypothesis model. 3.3 Improvements to the experiment Some of the improvements to the experiment have been proposed in weaknesses and limitations of the experiment (3.2.2). Further experimentation should be also undertaken in a lab setting as this would allow easier access to result, experimental setup and control of variables. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our International Baccalaureate Biology section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related International Baccalaureate Biology essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Biology: Lab report Germination

    4 star(s)

    The dependent variable in this experiment is the germination. The speed and general process will differ depending on the independent variables. The controlled variables were the type of seeds and the water. Different seeds obviously germinate at different paces and watering the seeds with different liquids may affect the germination, so to ensure a fair test I want to keep the type of seeds the same.

  2. Seed Germination Experiment. How would different levels of temperature of water affect the rate ...

    Water the seeds on a daily basis for about 5-6 days and make any observations necessary. Observations Quantitative Observations Water Temperature (�C) Number of seeds germinated Dish #1: 2.6�C � 0.5 0 Dish #2: 8.2�C � 0.5 3 Dish #3: 11.5�C � 0.5 5 Dish #4: 15.8�C � 0.5

  1. Experiment Colours of Light (Wavelength) absorbed by green plant

    The membrane will not be fully permeable and can make it harder for the chlorophyll to be extracted. The suggested solution is to add water that is just boiled. The dark period is not even The test tubes containing the chlorophyll extract are then taken into dark places for 20 minutes.

  2. internal assessment germination

    Choose 42 green beans of good quality - without any significant defect- and equally divide them into two groups of 21 beans each. 2. Place each group of beans in a beaker and label them as group A and group B.

  1. Investigating the Effects of Salt on Seed Germination

    To keep the amount of seeds the same for each sample, we will count out five groups of 10 seeds and then spread them evenly in each petri dish. * The same fertilizer used to place around the seeds in each sample and the same quantity of the fertilizer.

  2. What is the effect of increasing pH concentration (pH 3, 4, 5, 6 and ...

    * Marker for labeling * Mustard seeds of the same type bought from the nursery * 10 mustard seeds were kept in each petridish * Forceps * Ruler for measuring growth of seeds in mm and cm. * Scissors * Cotton to soak the seeds and keep in the Petri

  1. How does the salinity of water affect the germination of mung been seeds as ...

    seeds has on the seeds ability to begin germination as shown by the mean number of seeds with a cracked testa four days after solution was added to the seeds? Salinity of Water (mol L-1) Mean number of mung bean seeds with a cracked testa four days after being exposed

  2. The Effect of Alcohol on Biological Membranes

    Osmosis, the movement of water, is highly affected by the introduction of alcohol to a cell. If the cell gets too ?full? it will cause the membrane to expand and stretch, or vice versa if too much is released from the cell, the membrane would collapse and no longer maintaining its structure; alcohol disrupts this flow.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work