• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Urinalysis Lab. From analyzing the different urine samples containing glucose, albumin, an altered pH, and ketones, many observations were made.

Extracts from this document...


Discussion From analyzing the different urine samples containing glucose, albumin, an altered pH, and ketones, many observations were made. Through Benedict?s test, the Biuret test, the pH test and the odour test, many different characteristics were found. Ultimately, the unknown sample was found through these 4 tests. It was notable that the urine sample containing Benedict?s solution and glucose turned to a brownish-red color when heated. Benedict?s solution is used to test for the presence of an aldehyde or ketone functional group (Gurien, 2008), in this test glucose was being searched for. The color change to a brick red color indicated a positive result. However, when Benedict?s solution was added to the control, no changes were evident. When Benedict?s reagent was tested on the unknown sample, no changes were prevalent, indicating that no aldehyde or ketone functional group was present in the sample. ...read more.


This result explains that the unknown sample must have had an altered pH level. Lastly, the odour of the ketone sample and control sample was wafted and smelled. The smell of the sample containing ketones was similar to the smell of a nail polish remover solution. The tangy smell was a positive result for the presence of ketones. However, the control sample was odourless. In addition, the unknown sample was odourless, therefore no ketones were present in the sample. Furthermore, the lab confirmed the reactions of Benedict?s and Biuret reagents found through previous research and experiments performed by scientists such as Ferdinand Rose and Stanlet Rossiter Benedict. Ferdinand Rose stated that the biuret reagent can be used to detect the presence of peptide bonds; the copper (II) ion is reduced to copper (I) which forms a complex with the nitrogen?s and carbon?s of the peptide bonds in an alkaline solution causing it to turn violet in the presence of proteins (Sastry, 2010). ...read more.


This issue can result in uncertainty. A more precise way of identifying a sample as one that contains ketones should be used. Ketone strips just like the pH strips can be used the next time this lab is conducted so the investigator can be certain about the presence of ketones in the unknown sample. The ketone test strips (Figure 1.1) sold at local pharmacies are used for searching for ketones in urine samples and by using the strips, a quantitative result can be found. Another source of error could have been that one may have detected different proteins in the Biuret test. Since the Biuret test detects peptide bonds, any type of protein could have been detected. It does not necessarily mean that albumin had been detected. To fix this, an albumin testing kit could have been used to detect albumin and it?s concentration. By using an albumin testing kit (Figure 1.2), a quantitative result can be found. Figure 1.1 Figure 1. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our International Baccalaureate Biology section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related International Baccalaureate Biology essays

  1. Biology Lab Report-Osmosis

    then it becomes iso-osmotic, and eventually (at 0.3M NaCl), the solution becomes hyper-osmotic. Thus, the cells of the potato chips immersed in the solutions of concentrations 0.3M and 0.4M NaCl lose water to their surroundings and become plasmolysed. Conclusion: From the tables, observations and the analysis, these are the conclusions

  2. Plant Tropism Lab

    65 K-3 - - - 50 140 30 K-4 - - - 30 120 50 K-5 - - 80 10 100 - J-1 - 5 40 30 11 35 J-2 - 10 12 70 60 65 J-3 - 3 38 6 48 100 J-4 - - 40 30 31 60

  1. Biology Industrial Melanism of Peppered Moth Lab

    After five trials, there were more melanic moths and light-coloured moths. With the intermediate-coloured "tree bark" the closest moth to the predator were also captured. The different colours of moths were equally captured with a bit more on the melanic moth side.

  2. Digestion Lab discussion

    For test tube 2, 4/4, or 100% of the groups tested negative for digestion which was predicted and for test tube 3, 4/4, or 100% of the groups tested positive for gastric digestion which was expected. The hypothesis states for intestinal A pancreatic juice will digest starch, at 22�C room

  1. Biology Lab Design Glucose concentration

    Apparatus 1 x 1 fruits (tomato, orange, apple, pear, grape) 5 x 1 test tubes 1 x 1 10cm3 graduated cylinder 1 x 2 syringe 1x 5 filter paper 1x1 funnel 1 x 1 Scalpel 1 x 1 Forcep 5 x 1 cuvette 1 x 1 colorimeter (COLOURWAVE CO7500 COLORIMETER)

  2. Bio lab - Oxygen Consumption in germinating and non-germinating seeds

    Rate of oxygen consumption for ice water: Oxygen Consumption (ml) Germinating Seeds Non-Germinating Seeds 0.22 0.02 0.06 0.02 0.09 -0.035 0.24 0.09 -0.02 -0.10 Average 0.118 ml -0.001 ml Processed Table 13: The actual oxygen consumption of germinating seeds and non-germinating seeds for the ice water were displayed on the data.

  1. Protein Digestion Design Lab. To detect the amount of protein molecules or short ...

    Amount of protein digested Control Variables: 1. Size of the egg pieces 2. Size of test tubes 3. Temperature Materials 1. Cooked egg white 2. 8 x 150mm test tubes 3. Test tube rack 4. Standard lab glassware (eg. beakers) 5. Pepsin solution 6. Pancreatin solution 7.

  2. Identification of Carbohydrates ,Lipids,and Proteins lab

    Distilled Water Clear, light blue Clear light blue Investigation 2: Identification of Carbohydrates ? b) Starch and Glycogen Test Materials Used Color Before Iodine Is Added Color After Iodine Is Added 1% Glucose Clear Orange yellow 1% Fructose Clear Orange yellow 1% Maltose Clear Dark orange/red 1% Sucrose Clear Clear

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work