• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Use of stem cells to treat Stargardts disease and one other named condition.

Extracts from this document...


http://www.jimonlight.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/02/DURRESHAHWAR_STARGARDTS-DISEASE_19490101_13236.jpg Stargardt's macular dystrophy: The problem: Stargardt macular degeneration is a recessive genetic (inherited) eye disorder that causes progressive central vision loss, and eventually total blindness. Stargardt?s disease, with symptoms beginning in childhood, is the most common form of juvenile macular degeneration; affecting around one in 10,000 children. The mutation causes an active transport protein on photoreceptor cells to malfunction. These photoreceptor cells degenerate over time, which results in the production of a dysfunctional protein that cannot perform energy transport. The treatment: Embryonic stem cells are unique in that they have the potential to differentiate into any type of adult body cell (totipotent). Most embryonic stem cells are taken from embryos that have been fertilised in vitro in the laboratory (IVF), Under laboratory conditions, when embryonic stem cells are treated to divide and differentiate, retinal cells can be derived from embryonic stem cells. ...read more.


Hematopoietic Stem Cells (HSCs) are extracted from the patient?s bone marrow, peripheral blood or umbilical cord blood. The diseased white blood cells are destroyed via chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Bone marrow cells are killed and replaced with the stem cells, so healthy white blood cells can form. HSCs are transplanted back into the bone marrow. HSCs differentiate to form new healthy white blood cells. The benefit: The use of a patient?s own HSCs means there is far less risk of immune rejection than with a traditional bone marrow transplant. http://www.oxbridgebiotech.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/09/110327_leukaemia.jpg Application: Ethics of the therapeutic use of stem cells from specially created embryos, from the umbilical cord blood of a new-born baby and from an adult?s own tissues. ...read more.


Humans should have autonomy over their own bodies. Arguments against Therapeutic Cloning: * Involves the creation and destruction of human embryos ? both the stored embryos that are not used and additional embryos that are not required. (At what point do we afford the right to life?) * It is a slippery slope ? boundaries may be pushed further and further until embryos are routinely used as research material i.e. scientist ?playing God?; for which there might be religious or moral objection * Embryonic stem cells are capable of continued division and may develop into cancerous cells and cause tumours * With additional cost and effort, alternative technologies may fulfil similar roles (e.g. nuclear reprogramming of differentiated cell lines) http://www.slideshare.net/diverzippy/biok-notes-11-introduction-to-cells http://www.emaxhealth.com/1275/stargardt-disease-center-embryonic-stem-cell-trial http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hematopoietic_stem_cell_transplantation ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our International Baccalaureate Biology section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related International Baccalaureate Biology essays

  1. IB Genetic Unit Notes

    4.3.7: Define sex linkage. Sex linkage is a special case of linkage occurring when a gene is located on a sex chromosome (usually the X chromosome). 4.3.8: Describe the inheritance of colour blindness and haemophilia as examples of sex linkage. Both colour blindness and haemophilia are produced by a recessive sex-linked allele on the

  2. Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy

    It is uncertain who invented the wheelchair, but history shows in 1595, "an invalid's chair" was designed for Phillip II of Spain, but it is unknown who the designer is. Later, in 1783, John Dawson Bath designed a wheelchair named after the town of Bath.

  1. Genetics NOTES

    the process of genetic engineering - A transgenic animal is an animal that has had a new gene implanted on it - Plasmids are found in bacteria and are cut open using an enzyme, having the foreign DNA inserted and the plasmid is rejoined - A recombinant DNA is a

  2. In-vitro fertilisation

    "Is In vitro fertilization good or bad?" This shows that science in our life become more and more important. According to the research of the In vitro fertilization, I know this fertilization is a technique work, very popular now. Nowadays, husband and wife who cannot have a baby, can use this method to create a baby belongs to themselves.

  1. LAB-What infuences blood pressure

    It is difficult to determine them, while we do not change anything. We are just to record the blood pressure and some measurements. RESULTS 1) TOTAL (MALES +FEMALES) Table. 1.a. The data collected from the group of 18-years old people.

  2. Activated sludge wastewater treatment system and method

    A waste processing system as defined in claim 1, wherein the volume of said second container is substantially larger than the volume of said first container. 16. A waste processing system as defined in claim 1, additionally comprising: a valve to control the flow of wastewater from said wastewater stream into said first container.

  1. Sleep is a normal part of human life. Investigate the neurobiological basis of normal ...

    varies from wakefulness Body temperature Is regulated at lower set point than wakefulness; shivering initiated at lower temperature than during wakefulness Is not regulated; no shivering or sweating; temperature drifts toward that of the local environment Sexual arousal Occurs infrequently Increases from NREM (in both males and females)

  2. Overview of Cells & Energy (Revision)

    Packages secretions and manufactures lysosomes. Modifies and 'repacks' proteins. Homeostasis: balance Hypertonic: less water, more solute Hypotonic: more water, less solute Isotonic: equal amounts of water and solute Lysosome: membranous sacs containing hyrolytic enzymes. Hyrolyze proteins and other matierals, including ingested bacteria, and also play a role in cell death by 'digesting' the whole cell.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work