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Organisational Behaviour (in short called as OB) is concerned with the study of the behaviour and interaction of people in restricted or organised settings.

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Introduction

´╗┐Unit 3: Organisations and Behaviour: Introduction: Organisational Behaviour (in short called as OB) is concerned with the study of the behaviour and interaction of people in restricted or organised settings. It involves understanding people and predicting their behaviour, and knowledge of the means by which their behaviour is influenced and shaped. Organisations are bodies or entities created for a stated purpose They may consist of one or more people. In the case of a sole trader or single operator, he needs to build relationships with suppliers, contractors, customers, clients, and the community. For those that consist of more than one person, internal as well as external relationships have to be created and maintained. Organisations therefore consist of individuals, groups, and relationships. Objectives, structures, systems and processes are then created to give direction and order to activities and interactions. OB is thus of great concern to anyone who organises, creates, orders, directs, manages, or supervises the activities of others. It is also of concern to those who build relationships between individuals, groups of people, different parts of organisation between different organisation, for all these activities are founded on human interactions. OB is therefore concerned with:1. The purposes for which organisations are created 2. The behaviour of individuals, and an understanding of the pressures and influences that cause them to act and react in particular ways. 3. The qualities that individuals bring to particular situations. 4. The creation of groups i.e., collections of people brought together for given purposes. 5. The background and context within which activities take place. 6. The relationships and interactions with the wider environment with other organisations and groups. 7. The management and ordering of the whole and its parts into productive and effective work relationships. GOALS OF O.B. There are 4 primary goals of OB, which are as under:1. Describe 2. Understand 3. Predict, AND 4. Control. Task 1: 1. ...read more.

Middle

Both at the middle managerial level where leaders work closely with people and at higher managerial level where leaders are responsible to a number of people, their approach has an impact on the motivational levels of the organization. A leader needs to constantly inform him/herself of the motivational needs of the employees, one of simple factors of success cited in the organizations is a motivated workforce. The 4 leadership style of Telling, Selling, Participating and Delegating proposed in the situational leadership model can be used as per the motivational need of the subordinate. For example, for a senior manager who has been recently recruited and who boasts an illustrious career graph would need more responsibilities and opportunities to prove himself i.e. Delegating to remain motivated. On the other hand a fresher joining the organization may look at more Telling and a little participative approach to keep him/her motivated. A leader has to carefully evaluate and then decide on the right approach for the subordinate. Situational Leadership has all the more relevance when teams work together especially across functions or locations. In these cases the team members might be physically separated from the leaders and the work situations might rapidly change, in such cases, maintaining the involvement and motivation level of team members becomes important. To create a high performance team that works effectively, the style that the leader would have to choose may be unique for each team. Apart from this, a leader has to provide a vision to the people; it is the visions which help them direct and redirect their efforts towards it. In the recent times where changes are rapid in the organizations, the leaders have to be fully sensitized to what style would work the best, sometimes they might have to use a combination of styles to address issues effectively. For e.g. for a new change that is being introduced, the initial approach has to be Selling, where people are educated about the change, the next step becomes Telling, where the people have to be instructed as to how the change would be carried out. ...read more.

Conclusion

Almost every business relies on technology for day-to-day operations, from the decision of a solo entrepreneur to purchase a new laptop to a growing company's roll out of time-management software. 1. Significance Beyond the standard office laptop and smart phone, organizations implement information systems, custom software or specialized technology equipment to keep operations running smoothly. Advancements in technology have the potential to decrease the time needed to complete a task, or in some cases eliminate the need for a business process or job function. Typically, the desire for increased productivity drives upgrades to technology within an organization, which can significantly influence company operations. 1. Structure Progressions in computers and technology improve the efficiency of a business. Organizational structure adapts to these changes by restructuring departments, modifying position requirements or adding and removing jobs. Employers often require training on new software programs or equipment as a job requirement if it becomes industry standard. Web-based businesses may add new departments or jobs to specialize in new areas of technology. On some occasions, implementing new forms of technology may render certain job duties obsolete in some industries. 1. Operations For employees, technological enhancements often reduce the number of tedious office tasks or improve efficiency. Changes in day-to-day operation may come in the form of an upgrade to desktop computers, faster office equipment or the introduction of a new information system. Business owners increasingly utilize comprehensive software platforms to streamline operations. For example, customer relationship management (CRM) systems provide a cloud-based computing system for project management, assigning tasks and maintaining an accurate log of client communications. 1. Costs The decision to purchase or upgrade technology has the potential to put a big dent in company finances for large and small operations. To determine the time frame and scale of adding new computers or software, business owners must weigh the cost of improvements against the perceived added value to the company. Concerns about costs can often lead small businesses to delay upgrades and purchases. However, technology that significantly improves operations can offset costs through with an increase in profit. ...read more.

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