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International Baccalaureate: Chemistry

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  1. Rates of Reaction Lab Report - magnesium and hydrochloric acid

    4. Pressure (on the hydrogen bubble) {Pa} vvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvv a. Depth of measuring cylinder This was kept generally constant by keeping the general depth of the measuring cylinder constant; although this isn't an accurate way for controlling the variable, small differences in the depth would have a negligible effect on the pressure. b. Volume of HCL acid in the large beaker {mL} This was kept constant by keeping the volume at 500 ml, using the marked increments on the beaker itself. APPARATUS & DIAGRAM: METHOD: 1. Use the ruler, pencil and scissors to cut 15 magnesium strips down to a standardized length of 10 mm.

    • Word count: 1072
  2. Free essay

    pH titration curves Lab Report. How does the use of a strong acid with a strong base and the use of weak acid with a strong base affect the pH titration curves?

    - Burette The same burette will be used when finding the neutralization points for both parts of the experiment. Thus, this can decrease the percentage of error and accuracy of reading the results within the experiment. - Type of base solution NaOH is a strong base solution. It will be used throughout the experiment for both parts. The use of different strong base solutions can result in different neutralization points. Hence, inaccurate results can be collected that would affect the pH titration curve. - pH indicator Phenolphthalein is a universal pH indicator that is used for most titrations. Phenolphthalein will be used throughout the experiment.

    • Word count: 1048
  3. In this experiment, the effect of concentration on rate of reaction was investigated. We did this by reacting marble chips (calcium carbonate) with hydrochloric acid,

    How does reaction rate change according to concentration? Based on our processed data, the lower the concentration the faster the reaction. This also means that the higher the concentration, the slower the reaction. 2. Why is the cotton wool plug needed? The cotton wool plug is needed to absorb the amount of carbon dioxide released. It acts as a sponge in absorbing the gas expelled from the conical flask. The cotton wool is weighed beforehand and then after absorbing carbon dioxide, to find the mass of carbon dioxide released.

    • Word count: 1349
  4. Drugs and Medicine Options Report. Prior to ever considering working a medicine or drug into the bloodstream, a long and extensive set of procedures must be carried out.

    One of the most common ways that this is done is through oral ingestion with tablets, syrups, or drops. These oral methods are much slower than the rest because of how much slower the rate of absorption into the bloodstream from the stomach is. A more common way as far as more extreme medicines go is something like an IV, where a needle is stuck directly into a vein so that the medicine is immediately worked into the bloodstream. However, the oral methods will most likely remain the most common because of how comfortably and easily they can be ingested by people.

    • Word count: 1214
  5. Effect of Concentration on Electrochemical Cell Potential Using Nernst Equation

    The Nernst's equation is used to calculate the voltage of an electrochemical cell or to find the concentration of one of the components of the cell. The Nernst equation can be applied to find the cell potential of electrodes in any concentration by relating the cell potentials to its standard cell potential. Nernst Equation Ecell = E0cell - (RT/nF)lnQ Ecell = cell potential under nonstandard conditions (V) E0cell = cell potential under standard conditions R = gas constant, which is 8.31 (volt-coulomb)/(mol-K)

    • Word count: 1005
  6. Viscosity lab. Research question:- How is the viscosity of water affected by changing temperature?

    - Stopwatch - cloth towel. -fire source to boil water. -safety equipment like : lab coat, protection glass, etc. Method:- - Cold water from the refrigerator was put into the spherical burette and was left inside the spherical burette for a few minutes in order to reduce the burette's temperature. (this process was conducted to guarantee that there will be a very small difference between the temperature of the water relative to the temperature of the burette, in order to help slowing down any temperature transfer to guarantee that water inside the burette will remain very cold.) - Water that was used to cool the burette was replaced with another sample of water from a refrigerator.

    • Word count: 1095
  7. Stoichiometry Lab Report. Aim: To determine what solid product is produced in the decomposition of NaHCO3, based on the pre-calculated mass of the solid products versus the mass found in the experiment.

    In decomposition of carbonates it is knows that carbon dioxide and water is almost always one of the products. However with others it is metal oxide and carbon dioxide. You can see this from the balanced equations because carbon dioxide is a bi-product in all three cases. The second branch that this experiment explores is stoichiometry. It deals with the quantitative relationships between the reactants and the products in chemical reactions. The quantitative relationships primarily cover the ratio of moles between the different reactants and products in a reaction.

    • Word count: 1100
  8. Acid Base Titration Lab Report. The purpose of this experiment is to determine the concentration of a solution of Sodium hydroxide by titration against a standard solution of Potassium hydrogenphtalate.

    Trials Volume of acid/cm3 (�0.06cm3) Volume of NaOH used/cm3 (�0.04cm3) (�1 drop) Number of phenolphthalein drops used (�1drop) Initial burette reading/cm3 (�0.02 cm3) Final burette reading/cm3 (�0.02 cm3) 1 25.00 26.55 3 9.25 35.80 2 25.00 26.59 2 9.52 36.11 3 25.00 26.65 2 6.90 33.55 4 25.00 26.54 2 7.97 34.51 Calculations for Trial 1 In this experiment, trials 1, 2, and 4 will be used as they are considered accurate. Trial 3 will not be used and will be regarded as the inaccurate result.

    • Word count: 1435
  9. Determining the effect of carbon chain length of an alcohol on its fuel efficiency

    * Put the 20.00 grams of water in the calorimeter and record its temperature using a probe of thermometer. * Support the calorimeter on the clamp and stand it over the spirit burner containing methanol, the liquid alcohol to be tested. * Weigh the spirit burner, record its mass and replace the burner under the calorimeter and light the wick. * Note: Make sure the stopper remains on the spirit burner up until the spirit burner is lit to prevent alcohol from evaporating thus leading to a change in mass. * Light the spirit burner and use the thermometer or probe to stir the water at all times it is being heated. Heat the water until it reaches 300C.

    • Word count: 1312
  10. Limiting Reagent Lab. Purpose To determine which compound was the limiting reagent in a reaction between lead (II) nitrate and potassium iodide (referred from the lab sheet) To determine the theoretical value of lead (II) iodide

    nitrate used instead of 1.0 grams of lead (II) nitrate Observations 1. Quantitative data Substance weighed Mass (� 0.05g) Lab apparatus Watch glass 20.80 Filter paper 1.35 Reactants KI and watch glass 21.60 Pb(NO3)2 and watch glass 21.90 Product Precipitate and filter paper 2.76 Table 1: Mass of apparatus and chemicals with apparatus 2. Qualitative data * Potassium iodide appeared as white crystals. * Lead nitrate appeared as white crystals. Shapes of each lead nitrate particles were irregular. * Both potassium iodide and lead nitrate dissolved in water.

    • Word count: 1208
  11. The purpose of this Titration Analysis of ASA experiment was to use titration analysis techniques to determine the amount of ASA content contained of a standard pain-relief tablet.

    KHP (KHC8H4O4 (aq)): 204.2220 g/mol 2) NaOH (aq): 39.9971 g/mol 3) ASA (C9H8O4 (aq)): 180.1583 g/mol List of Uncertainties in the Lab: - Erlenmeyer Flask 0.8mL - Volumetric Flask: 0.8mL - Pipet: 0.04ml - Electronic Mass Scale: 0.01g - Burette: 0.05mL (Smallest measurement is 0.1mL, uncertainty of any analog scale measurement is half of the smallest unit of measurement, thus the uncertainty for the burette is 0.05mL) Pre-lab Calculation: - Mass Of KHP required to prepare 100.0mL of a 0.150 mol/L solution is: Post-lab Calculations: - Part 1: Standardization of sodium hydroxide solution(NaOH(aq))

    • Word count: 1424
  12. Examining the Solubility of Substances in Double Replacement Reactions (Final)

    + BaCl2(aq) ZnCl2(aq) + BaSO4(s) Net Ionic Equation: Ba2+(aq) + SO42-(aq) BaSO4(s) ZnSO4 - AgNO3 : Overall equation: ZnSO4(aq) + 2AgNO3(aq) Zn(NO3)2(aq) + Ag2SO4(s) Net Ionic Equation: 2Ag+(aq) + SO42-(aq) Ag2SO4(s) ZnSO4 - Pb(NO3)2 : Overall equation: ZnSO4(aq) + Pb(NO3)2(aq) Zn(NO3)2(aq) + PbSO4(s) Net Ionic Equation: Pb2+(aq) + SO42-(aq) PbSO4(s) ZnSO4 - NaCl : Overall equation: ZnSO4(aq) + 2NaCl(aq) ZnCl2(aq) + Na2SO4(aq) Net Ionic Equation: No reaction ZnSO4 - NaBr : Overall equation: ZnSO4(aq) + 2NaBr(aq) ZnBr2(aq) + Na2SO4(aq) Net Ionic Equation: No reaction ZnSO4 - CuSO4 : Overall equation: ZnSO4(aq) + CuSO4(aq) ZnSO4(aq) + CuSO4(aq) Net Ionic Equation: No reaction ZnSO4 - NaI : Overall equation: ZnSO4(aq)

    • Word count: 1638
  13. Rate of reaction of Magnesium with Hydrochloric acid

    1mol dm-3 Hydrochloric acid, 2mol dm-3 Hydrochloric acid, 1mol dm-3 Sulphuric acid. Dependent Variable: Gas produced as a result of the reaction measure over 10 second time period. Controlled: Temperature, Amount of Magnesium (and also surface area), Hydrochloric acid (1mol dm-3), Sulphuric acid (1mol dm-3), Hydrochloric acid (1mol dm-3). Apparatus and Chemicals: * Conical flask (100 cm3) * Rubber bung and delivery tube to connect conical flask to 100cm3 gas syringe * Measuring cylinders (100 cm3) * Clamp stand, boss and stand * Stop watch * Graph paper * Magnesium ribbon, cut into 3cm pieces and coiled * Hydrochloric acid, 1 mol dm-3 * Hydrochloric acid, 2 mol dm-3 * Sulphuric acid, 1 mol dm-3 Procedure 1.

    • Word count: 1453
  14. Our aim in this experiment to measure the heats of reaction for three related exothermic reactions and to verify Hesss Law of Heat Summation

    http://www.science.uwaterloo.ca/~cchieh/cact/c120/hess.html REACTION 1: NaOH(s)=Na(aq)+OH(aq) Data table1:table for the values of the reaction NaOH(s)=Na(aq)+OH(aq) time(sec) 0 30 60 90 120 150 temperature(�0,01)C� trial1 23 25 25 26 26 26 mass of NaOH=0,541(�0,0001)g,50(�0,1)ml water trial2 23 24,5 25 26 25,5 25 mass of NaOH=0,563(�0,0001)g,50(�0,1)ml water trial3 23 24 24,5 25 25,5 26 mass of NaOH=0,550(�0,0001)g,50(�0,1)ml water Graph1:the graph of temperature- time graph of NaOH(s)=Na(aq)+OH(aq) for trial1. Graph2:the graph of temperature- time graph of NaOH(s)=Na(aq)+OH(aq) for trial2. Graph3:the graph of temperature- time graph of NaOH(s)=Na(aq)+OH(aq) for trial3.

    • Word count: 1567
  15. Reactivity series for common metals experiment.

    Another table, but smaller, to record data. Procedure/Method 1. Get all required elements you are going to need, this elements are listed above. 2. Put the glass on top of the table of reactions. 3. Clean all metals, until they are shiny and clean. 4. Place 4 times the same metal on its corresponding column and different square; for all the metals(5). 5. Add carefully with the teat pipette one or two drops of the metal compound indicated directly onto the solid metal.

    • Word count: 1631
  16. Investigating Solutions. In this experiment the effect of concentration of different solutions will be investigated against conductivity The conductivity of an electrolyte solution is a measure of its ability to conduct electricity.

    * If your hair is long tie it back. Variables - Dependent Variable - * Conductivity of solution (�S/m) Will be measured by a conductivity probe connected to a Data Logger - Lab Quest. The range of the probe will be of 0-2000. Independent Variable - * Concentration of solutions (M) This is what I am going to change to have a range of values. The solutions are manually prepared for each concentration. For each solution there will be five concentrations - 1M, 0.8M, 0.6M, 0.4M and 0.2M.

    • Word count: 1547
  17. Experiment to investigate the stoichiometry of the reaction between copper metal and aqueous silver ions.

    Three days later 6) Shake all crystals carefully from the coil and lift it from the solution with tweezers. 7) Rinse any material remaining on the coil back to the beaker. Allow the coil to dry and reweigh it. 8) Allow the silver crystals to settle in the beaker and carefully decant the blue solution. 9) Add 10 mL of AgNO3 and stir gently to dissolve any copper flecks. 10) Decant off the liquid over the settled crystals. Wash with 10 mL of distilled water and decant three more times.

    • Word count: 1080
  18. Determining the position of unknown element X in the Reactivity Series

    In the experiment, the enthalpy (temperature) change will also show how reactive element X is. For example if X is right above Zinc in the reactivity series i.e. element X is aluminium, then the temperature difference between reacting Al with CuSO4 will be more than reacting Al with ZnSO4 or FeSO4. This is because as the distance (number of elements in between between) the elements increases there is more difference in the reactivity level of the selected elements. When ?H (?Heat) is +ve, the reaction taking place is exothermic and when ?H is -ve, the reaction will be endothermic.

    • Word count: 1160
  19. Melting and Freezing point of naphthalene

    For gas, the particles move freely in the container it's in. Solid is a definite shape while liquid and gas are indefinite. Solids stay the same shape while liquids and gasses take the shape of the container it's in. Hypothesis The melting point of Naphthalene is 80�and the freezing point of Naphthalene is 60�. Materials and Equipment * A 500ml beaker * Tap water * Ring Clamp * Wire Gauze * Bunsen Burner * Naphthalene * Test tube holder * Stopwatch * Retort Stand * Beaker Tongs * Thermometers Procedure (methods)

    • Word count: 1074
  20. Properties of different alcohols used as fuels.

    Variables: - Independent variables: 1. Propanol 2. Butanol 3. Pentanol 4. Hexanol - Dependent variables: - Controlled variables: 1. Change in temperature of water which is = 30�C. 2. Volume of distilled water which is heated = 50cm�. 3. There should be a constant distance between the base of the copper calorimeter and the spirit lamp otherwise different amount of energy could escape each time giving us inaccurate results. The distance between the tip of the wick of the sprit lamp and the base of the calorimeter should be 5cm. 4. In order to avoid excessive heat loss, the same calorimeter should be used throughout the experiment.

    • Word count: 1513
  21. Determining the activation energy of a reaction, By using the experimental data and the Arrhenius equation, the activation energy for the reduction of peroxodisulphate ions, S2O82-(aq) by iodide ions, I-(aq) in a clock reaction is found to be approximatel

    The R2 value in this graph is found to be 0.9628, which is quite close to 1. This suggests that this linear line is a good fit of the points. Calculating the activation energy The Arrhenius equation states that, ln k = where k = rate constant A = Arrhenius constant E = activation energy R = Universal gas constant = 8.31 J k-1 mol-1 T = temperature in Kelvin This logarithmic form of the Arrhenius equation resembles a linear function in the form y = mx + b.

    • Word count: 1123
  22. Investigating the effect of ion concentration in electrolytes on the potential difference in a voltaic cell

    Hypothesis If the concentration of ions in the electrolyte increases, then so will the potential difference in the voltaic cell. When two electrodes are connected in a voltaic cell, the electrode potential depends not only on the nature of the electrodes themselves, but also on the number of ions available in the electrolyte. If there are more ions available, then the appropriate oxidation or reduction reaction would have more chance of occurring. Apparatus * Iron electrode, 3cm x 2cm * Copper electrode, 3cm x 2cm * Iron (II)

    • Word count: 1615
  23. The aim of our experiment was to find the mass of acetyl salicylic acid in an aspirin tablet and compare it with the manufactures claim.

    * There was a strong smell when the aspirin and water was boiling. * The mixture in the volumetric flask still had solid clumps in it. This we discovered was part of the outside shell of the aspirin tablets. * A thin foamy layer formed on the meniscus of the mixture of the volumetric flask after it was left overnight Calculations: CH3COOC6H4COOH (s) + 2NaOH (aq) � HOC6H4COONa (s) + H2O(aq) Calculations Uncertainties C = and N= C = Concentration Mr = molar mass M = mass V = Volume N = Moles Moles of NaOH = 0.998 mol Concentration of sulphuric acid = 0.0495 mol dm-3 Volume of sulphuric acid = 7.28 cm3 Volumetric flask = 250 ml �0.3 0.12% Pipette = 20.0 mL ??0.1?mL 0.5% N(NaOH)

    • Word count: 1033
  24. The aim of our experiment was to find out the molar mass of the lithium sample and compare the molar mass to the actual molar mass of lithium from the periodic table.

    Titration raw data Table showing the volume of (0.1) hydrochloric acid needed to neutralise the Lithium Hydroxide solution ml) Volumes Trials (ml) (ml) � 0.1 Trial 1 Trial 2 Trial 3 Average Initial Volume (ml) � 0.05 9.1 1.0 17.1 Final Volume (ml) � 0.05 17 9.0 24.9 Change In Volume (ml) � 0.1 7.9 8.0 7.8 7.90 � 0.1 Table showing the volume of (0.1) hydrochloric acid needed to neutralise the Lithium Hydroxide solution ml) Volumes Trials (ml) (ml) � 0.1 Trial 1 Trial 2 Trial 3 Average Initial Volume (ml) � 0.05 19.5 10.3 1.2 Final Volume (ml)

    • Word count: 1300
  25. The aim of this experiment is discover the relationship between the temperature (20C,25C,30C,35C,40C) of the reaction between acidified Potassium Dichromate and Iron using a water bath

    Redox half equations: x3 ( Fe � Fe2+ + 2e- ) Cr2072- + 14H+ + 6e- � 2Cr3+ + 7H2O Cr2072- + 14H+ + 3 Fe � 2Cr3+ 7H2O 3Fe2+ Aim: The aim of this experiment is discover the relationship between the temperature (20�C,25�C,30�C,35�C,40�C) of the reaction between acidified Potassium Dichromate and Iron using a water bath on the rate in which the acidified Potassium Dichromate and Iron react and change colour from yellow to dark purple. The independent variable in this experiment is the temperature. The reaction will be carried out at a range of temperatures.

    • Word count: 1129
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Whilst Chemistry is a universal science, studying it at IB is quite different from other courses. The most distinctive difference is that it has considerably more breadth in the coverage of topics. The 11 topic core include: Quantitative Chemistry, Atomic Structure, Periodicity, Bonding, Energetics, Kinetics and Organic Chemistry.

The seven optional topics include modern analytical chemistry, human biochemistry, medicines and drugs, food chemistry, chemistry in industry and society, further organic chemistry and environmental chemistry. You'll be expected to become adept at practical laboratory work, data collection and manipulation, and build a strong scientific awareness. External assessment consists of three written papers, which you may find easier to face having accessed the Marked by Teachers collection of IB Chemistry essays. Internal assessment, which makes up 24% of the marks, consists of an interdisciplinary project, a variety of short and long-term practical investigations and some subject-specific projects.

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