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# International Baccalaureate: Chemistry

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1. ## The Polarity of a Compound. We also determined that Water (H2O), is the most polar of all our tested compounds. To explain why it`s polar is simple; it has it`s hydrogen bonds (which cause it to be very polar) and the fact that it is in a isosceles triang

The only disquishing factor that ould affect this in propone is the fact that it contains double bonds. This leads me to believe that there is a higher electronegativity in double bonded compounds than single bonded one`s. Why this happens ould be anything but the main theory for why is that when oxygen bonds with a hydrogen, then the polarity of the hydrogen atom on the other side of the oxygen will reduce its strength. This cancelation of the oxygen's negative polarity because of the Hydrogen can be compared to when Ethanol and Methanol reduced the polarity of the molecule.

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2. ## What affects the rate if reaction more, increasing concentration or increasing temperature?

Record data and repeat process until the amount needed for CaCo3 is done Time (seconds) Volume (mm3) 15 0 30 0 45 0 1.00 9 1.15 17 1.30 27 1.45 37 2.00 45 2.15 53 2.30 66 2.45 71 3.00 78 3.15 80 3.30 87 3.45 95 4.00 103 Concentration of acid= 1 molar Amount of CaCo3= 1.5 grams For these results I did take me a while to set it up since I was working alone and I had to find someone to help me read the amount of volume. As you can see it did take quite some time for the CaCo3 to start reacting.

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3. ## Investigating Glue. We expect the result the casein in milk and textured soy protein in soybean milk have comparable sticking strength as starch contained in commercial glue. The significant advantage of the production of our protein glues is that protei

Protein molecules are highly folded, resulting in a great contact surface area and exposure of the hydrophobic bonds. When two surfaces of substances like wood or paper are held together by protein, linkages are formed in between the molecules, and the two surfaces are stick together and are difficult to separate. We expect the result the casein in milk and textured soy protein in soybean milk have comparable sticking strength as starch contained in commercial glue. The significant advantage of the production of our protein glues is that proteins in expired food can be recycled and reused to make the useful glue.

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4. ## IB IA: Determination of Heat of Neutralization

= Temperature difference, T3 Since the concentration of the each of the acids and bases is 1 M, which is 1 moldm-3. Therefore, number of moles of acids or bases used for each experiment = 1 x volume of each acid or base used Experiment 1: Equation for the experiment: HNO3(aq) + NaOH(aq) � NaNO3(aq) + H2O(l) Heat evolved = mc? = 0.1 x 4.18 x 5.5 = 2.299 kJ Number of moles of acids used = 1 x 0.05 = 0.05 moles From the equation, 1 mole of HNO3 reacts with 1 mole of NaOH and gives 1 mole of water.

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5. ## My IB chemistry research project. Molecular gastronomy. Can we devise new cooking methods that produce unusual and improved results on the texture and flavour of food?

* Application Statement: The purpose of this experiment is to determine new culinary technique to create a new and uncommon and enhanced outcome to food. The whole process of preparing, eating, sensing, and enjoying food involves tremendously complex chemistry, physics, and biochemistry. For years, a new culinary trend called 'molecular cooking' has been touted as the most exciting development in haute cuisine. [Culinate - Eat to Your Ideal] Molecular Gastronomy will be the change to how we perceive food to our taste buds, and how it will affect the mood we're in.

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6. ## Crude Oil

In simple terms, Crude Oil is a treasure trove of useful substances. Not only is Crude Oil used to produce fuel for cars, trucks, airplanes, boats and trains, but it is also used for a wide variety of other products including asphalt for roads, lubricants for all kinds of machines, plastics for toys, bottles, food wrap and computers. This is the main reason as to why it causes such excitement amongst the societies of the world. You can say that Crude Oil is what keeps the world spinning.

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7. ## Aspirin Lab Report

This range of colors determines the color change interval and it expresses the pH range. Phenolphthalein indicator shows acid form when the color is clear and a base form when the color is pink. The approximate range of change in color is when the pH is 8 to 9.8. Purpose The purpose of this lab is to experimentally determine the molar mass of pure aspirin(acetyl salicylic acid) present in an aspirin tablet using a titration. Hypothesis Variables Dependent: Independent: Controlled variables How to control them Materials Amount 0.100 M NaOH Biuret Ethyl alcohol Various strengths of aspirin Phenolphthalein indicator Goggles 50-mL Erlenmeyer flasks Mortar and pestle 150mL beakers Funnel Procedure Raw Data Aspirin 1 Aspirin

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8. ## Combustion of alcohols lab report

Results: Table of Results Name of alcohol Weight of calorimeter with 80 cm^3 of water (g) Initial weight of spirit burner (g) Weight of spirit burner after burning (g) Initial temperature of water (?C) Maximum temperature reached (?C) Ethanol 158.54 156.03 155.71 20.00 32.00 Propanol 158.04 139.18 138.85 21.00 34.00 Butanol 159.18 165.46 165.18 22.00 34.00 Pentanol 159.32 159.36 159.04 21.00 33.00 Hexanol 158.37 174.93 174.61 21.00 34.00 Heptanol 158.03 151.46 151.08 20.00 35.00 Octanol 159.54 164.25 163.90 22.00 39.00 Nonanol 159.67 174.74 174.55 20.00 31.00 Table of data Name of alcohol Energy liberated (J) Molar Mass (g)

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9. ## To Investigate the Effectiveness of Antacid products you can buy

Antacids prevent the acid reacting with damaged stomach lining, allowing the ulcer to heal. However, the dosage of antacids affects the desired result. If the dosage was too low, it would have little to no affect on neutralising the excess acid. At the same time, if the dosage is too high, the acid would be neutralised too much, resulting in a basic pH in the stomach. This can sometimes be mistaken for excess acid in the stomach, so more antacid is taken which increases the alkalinity in the stomach. This is called alkalosis. Indigestion can be used to describe any discomfort in the stomach, however once the antacids neutralise the excess acid to alleviate the pain, the body produces more acid.

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10. ## Investigating a factor which may (or may not) affect the value of an equilibrium constant (Kc)

Kc >> 1 if the reaction almost goes to completion and Kc<<1 if the reaction hardly takes place. If the value of the equilibrium constant lies between 10^-2 and 10 ^2 then the reactants and the products will both be present in noticeable amounts in the equilibrium system. Le Chatelier's principle states that as long as the temperature remains constant then the value of the equilibrium constant will also remain constant. However, Le Chatelier's Principle also states that the equilibrium system will react in order to remove extra heat, causing the reaction to proceed in the reverse direction, converting products back to reactants.

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11. ## Preparation of Aspirin Lab

+ 3 (15.999) + 6 (1.0079) = 138.1216 +/- 0.0000 g/mol Relative Molecular Mass of Aspirin: Mass of carbon: 12.011 g/mol Mass of oxygen: 15.999 g/mol Mass of hydrogen: 1.0079 g/mol Mass of Aspirin: 9 (12.011) + 4 (15.999) + 8 (1.0079) = 180.1582 +/- 0.0000 g/mol Theoretical Yield of Aspirin: Mass of Salicylic Acid: 1.0167 +/- 0.0001 g Relative Molecular Mass of Salicylic Acid: 138.1216 g/mol Relative Molecular Mass of Aspirin: 180.1582 g/mol Theoretical Yield: 1.0167g x (1 mol/138.1216 g)

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12. ## Titration Lab

The pipette made the amount of redox constant for every trial, and made the data more accurate. 3. In order to control the amount of potassium permanganate, we have measured the solution with the same plate and same scale. Since we have used the same materials, the amount used was very close. 4. To control the amount of force put in to mix the solution, I used my right hand for every trial and did not vary the length and procedure to mix.

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13. ## Stratospheric Ozone and CFCs

("Stratospheric Ozone: Background Material" par. 7). The substances found in the spray cans are CFCs. CFC is short for chlorofluocarbons. CFCs are made of a number of different elements. Chlorine, Fluorine, and Carbon are the elements found in CFCs. The chemical equations for CFCs are: CFCl3 + UV Light ==> CFCl2 + Cl Cl + O3 ==> ClO + O2 ClO + O ==> Cl + O2 When products that contain CFCs are used, such as Styrofoam, aerosol spray cans, etc., the CFCs slowly rise into the atmosphere.

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14. ## Marie Curie

One of the photographs that were taken was one of his wife's hands, complete with her ring. This photo showed the skeletal structure of her hand, and the ring that was placed on top (Peters and Slowiczek par 4). Roentgen's wife placed her hand in the path of x rays, which Roentgen created himself. He created x rays "by beaming an electron ray energy source onto a cathode tube." (Peters and Slowiczek par 4). These "photographs" intrigued Becquerel, inducing him to research the phenomena of florescence and phosphorescence. In March of 1896, he discovered that florescence and phosphorescence were similar to each other; as well as to x rays, but there is also an important difference.

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15. ## Genetically Modified Food

Now GM is done under control. Now GM crops yield better and more favorable crops. Scientists now insert only the required trait and avoiding wastage of crops. Other than that, GMF also have traits which could be very helpful to some farmers of the developing countries. GM crops have a faster yield which means more food production and more profits as the final product of GM crops are cheaper than regular crops as there is no need of any pesticide or herbicide because the crops have it in their genes.

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16. ## combustion of alcohol

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17. ## Hess's Law. The experiment conducted was meant to determine the enthalpy of formation of MgO(s) and CaO(s)

has a mass of 100.0 g. Qsurr = mc?T = (100.0 g)(4.184 J/(g��C)(25.5�C - 19.0�C) = (100.0 g)(4.184 J/g��C)(6.5�C) = 2719.6 J - Qsurr = Qrxn -2719.6 J = Qrxn ?H = Q/n = - 2719.6 J/0.026796 mol = - 101492.8 J/mol = - 101.5 kJ/mol � 0.5 kJ/mol Error: ?T: 0.5 + 0.5 = 1.0 ?H: 0.5 1.0 0.01 [ ( ���� ) + ( ��� ) + ( �������� ) ][1.0] 100.0 6.5 0.026796 = 0.5 Trial 1 Table VI: Enthalpies of Reaction After Manipulating The Given Equations for MgO Manipulated Equation Enthalpy of Reaction (kJ/mol) MgCl2(aq)

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18. ## Chemical monitoring and management - composition of the atmosphere and the problems of pollution.

Thus this region compared to the troposphere is very dry. The Stratosphere extends from the top of the troposphere for about 31 miles. Many jet aircrafts fly in the stratosphere because it is very stable Mesosphere The mesosphere starts from the top of the stratosphere and extends for about 85km. The gases here are in their excited state because of the sun's energy they absorb. Temperature here reaches to about -93 degrees. Thermosphere The thermosphere starts just above the mesosphere and extends to about 600 km high. Temperatures here go up to a staggering 1700 degrees.

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19. ## Acid Rain

Nitric acid is made when nitrogen dioxide reacts with water, which also makes nitrous acid. The pH-level of an acidic rain cloud can reach up to 2.6. In areas with a lot of industry the pH-level will be about 4; in Los Angeles the most acidic precipitation had a pH-level of 3. However, in some parts of the world, such as north Australia, natural emissions of the vegetation can make the pH sink to 4.4. The cause of nitrogen oxide, sulphur dioxide, ammoniac and other compounds being in our rain is the burning of fossil fuels.

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20. ## The purpose of this experiment was to determine the molar mass of carbon dioxide (CO2) experimentally.

Materials: * Volumetric flask, 100cm3, dry with stopper * Scale with accuracy of three decimal places. * Carbon dioxide generator * Delivery tube * Thermometer * Access to barometer Variables: Dependent: Mass of CO2 Independent: Volume Fixed: Temperature, pressure and air density Procedure: 1. The dry volumetric flask was weighed with its stopper to the nearest 0.001 g before the result was entered in Result Table 17a. 2. The stopper was removed and the delivery tube from the carbon dioxide generator was inserted into the bottom of the flask. Thereafter, the valve was opened, releasing CO2 into the flask for approximately one minute before the valve was closed.

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21. ## An Experiment to Determine the Empirical Formula of Lead Iodide

- 3 x cartridge burner - 3 x iron stand - 1 x 50 cm3 graduated cylinder (1 cm3 graduation ? 0.5cm3) - 3 x filter paper - 3 x long-stemmed funnel Chemicals: - Distilled water - Granulated lead - 3M HNO3 (nitric acid) - Potassium iodide, KI Procedure: 1) About 0.130 and 0.150 g of granulated lead was weighed accurately on the electronic balance in a 250 cm3 beaker marked #1. and the mass of lead was recorded to the nearest 0.001g 2)

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22. ## Determining the Molar Mass of Volatile Liquid

* The volatile liquid was weighed on the same electronic balance. * The temperature of the water was measured in all runs with the same digital thermometer. * The atmospheric pressure was measured in all runs with the same digital barometer Material: Equipment: - 1 x 600 cm3 beaker - 1 x 250 cm3 Graduated cylinder (2 cm3 graduation ? 1.0 cm3) - 1 x 10 cm3 Graduated Cylinder (1 graduation ?0.2 cm3) - 2 x 250 cm3 Erlenmeyer flask - 1 x Support stand - 2 x Clamps and clamp holder - 1 x Electronic balance (300 g, readability �0.001 g)

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23. ## Empirical Formula of Magnesium Oxide

The same electronic balance was used to minimize the error. - Wire gauze - Crucible with lid - Ring stand - Flint starter - Bunsen burner - Steel wool - Ring clamp - Goggles - Electronic balance - Crucible tongs - 10cm�0.1cm of magnesium strip - Clay triangle Materials Procedure 1. Safety First! Put on goggles 2. Using a balance, determine the mass of a clean, dry porcelain crucible and lid 3. Clean the surface of a 10 cm�0.01cm strip of magnesium ribbon with steel wool. Loosely coil the magnesium ribbon and place it in the crucible 4.

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24. ## Aim: To find the molar mass of butane, by finding the number of moles of gas in the container and comparing it to the mass of butane in the container

Since we could not measure the temperature or pressure inside the container, we measured the atmospheric pressure and temperature. We assumed that if we waited for enough time, the temperature inside the container will be equal to the atmospheric temperature. Secondly, the atmospheric temperature = pressure inside the container and the pressure exerted by the column of water. The pressure exerted by the column of water = mgh. [Reference: www.wikipedia.com] Prediction I feel that the mass of one mole of butane will be approximately 58, as this is the RMM of Butane (correct to 0 d.p.).

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25. ## Reactants Lab. In this experiment we discovered three types of chemical reactions, Single and Double Replacement reactions, along with Neutralization Reaction.

The same person will make qualitative observations, to ensure that observations are kept consistent. Aspect 3: Materials: > Spot Plate > Forceps > Squeeze Bottle filled with water > Toothpick List of Reactants Fig. 1.1 Reactant Chemical Formula aluminum (s) Al (s) copper (II) chloride (aq) CuCl2 (aq) barium hydroxide (aq) Ba(OH)2 (aq) sulphuric acid (aq) H2SO4 (aq) chlorine (aq) Cl2 (aq) sodium bromide (aq) NaBr (aq) zinc (s) Zn (s) copper (II) sulphate (aq) CuSO4 (aq) hydrochloric acid (aq) HCl (aq) magnesium hydroxide (aq) Mg(OH)2 (aq) calcium chloride (aq) CaCl2 (aq) sodium carbonate (aq) Na2CO3 (aq) calcium (s) Ca (s) water (l) H2O (l) sodium acetate (aq) C2H3NaO2 (aq) magnesium (s) Mg (s)

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