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International Baccalaureate: Chemistry
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This will be done by using only one wax candle. The thermometer used throughout the experiment must be the same to ensure it doesn't cause random error. The water used must be from the same source to ensure it's qualities are the same. This will be done by using the same tap for the water. The system should be closed so that no energy is released to the atmosphere. Procedure 1. Weigh the candle and the can and note down their masses 2. Take 100g of water and pour it in the can 3.
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Beakers (500ml and 250ml) Test tubes Graduated cylinders Eyedroppers Stopwatch 6x Thermometres Ice Procedure Because I started my experiement with 1 mol solution of H2S204 I had to dilute it down to 0.25 mol Prior to the experiment, half an hour before starting turn on the calorimeter 1. Measure 6ml of HCl and place it in a test tube 2. Using a different graduated cylinder measure 6 ml of H2S204 and place it in a separate labeled test tube 3.
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How the combustion of different types of food affect the amount of heat calories and energy yield emitted.
Furthermore, he expects that the most 'fatty' food will burn for a longer period of time, require less assistance, and will be more thoroughly burnt will less ash deposit remaining. The bread is expected to burn the least unassisted, the cracker the most, with the cereal in between the two values. This prediction is based on the chemical construction of the foods. The cracker has the least amount of air-pockets, contributing to the assumption that it will engulf in the flame with more ease.
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Then we recorded the final volume of water, and repeated the experiment until we had three trials. We concluded that the molar mass of butane can be determined through the average of repeated trials of the experiment were no systematic or random errors occur. DATA COLLECTION & PROCESSING (DCP) RAW DATA - Initial Mass of Lighter in (g +/- 0.01g) Final Mass of Lighter in (g +/- 0.01g) *Initial Volume of Water (mL +/- 0.1mL) *Final Volume of Water (mL +/- 0.1mL)
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TITRATION OF A WEAK ACID WITH A STRONG BASE - From the experiment I have calculated that the molar enthalpy of neutralization for sodium hydroxide wiht sulphuric acid is -(54 3.2 kJ/mol).
18.30 6.38 20.75 11.84 18.35 6.57 21.20 11.87 18.40 6.90 21.55 11.89 18.45 8.68 22.30 11.91 18.50 10.52 22.85 11.91 TITRATION OF WEAK ACID WITH STRONG BASE VISUAL TRIAL # 1 Volume of Weak Acid (mL) ?0.04mL Initial Burette Reading (mL) ?0.05mL Final Burette Reading (mL) ?0.05mL Colour Change TITRATION OF WEAK ACID WITH STRONG BASE VISUAL TRIAL # 2 Volume of Weak Acid (mL) ?0.04mL Initial Burette Reading (mL) ?0.05mL Final Burette Reading (mL) ?0.05mL Colour Change Qualitative Data: * Beaker was warm after mixing the acid and base. Processing: 2 NaOH(aq) + H2SO4(aq) = 2 H2O(l) + Na2SO4(aq)
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Les �lectrons provenant de cuivre utiliseront l'�lectrolyte (le sulfate de cuivre) pour voyager entre les deux �lectrodes. Si le courant augmente, le nombre d'atomes de cuivre qui seront transf�r�s entre les deux �lectrodes augmentera lui aussi. Donc, la masse de cuivre produite n'a rien � faire sauf d'augmenter elle aussi. Bref, � partir de ceci je peux pr�dire qu'une augmentation du courant va provoquer une augmentation nette de la quantit� de produits, c'est-�-dire la masse de cuivre. 3) VARIABLES a)
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Gas was formed and on testing it with a lit stick, it glows brighter. liver Reaction was also fast as the one above, few bubbles were formed vigorously and test tube became warm. Gas is formed Raw potato Reaction was slower than the two above, and less bubbles of a gas formed. Stick glow a bit bright Juice No bubbles formed.
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As we are ready to start the experiment we fold the mg ribbon on the hook and put the stopper into the test tube so that when we tilt the test tube the mg ribbon can easily fall into the acid. It is important to wait for the reaction to finish completely so that the equipment returns back to room temperature.
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3. We repeated step 2, with water, using 40, 60, 80 and 100 drops. This made the experiment more accurate i.e. gave a more precise mass of the water drop. 4. then, we repeated steps 3 and 4 with the three other liquids - ethanol, glycerine and ethylene glycol. 5. Values were noted down. Further calculations were made using the mole equation - Number of moles = And, also using Avogadro's constant, where the number of molecules in one mole of a substance is 6.023 � 10��. Controlling, varying and monitoring the variables - > The independent variable was varied by using not one, but four different types of liquid.
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Journals a. Analytical Chemistry: LC number: TP1. A53 Publisher: American Chemical Society Country published: USA Frequency: 2 times per month 1st issue owned: Volume 72, Number 1, Jan 2000 1st article in current issue: Volume 75, Number 24, December 2003 Title: On-Chip Hydrodynamic Chromatography Separation and Detection of Non-particles and Biomolecules. Authors: Marko T.Blon, Emil Chmela, R-Edwin Oosterbroek, Rob Tijssen, and Albert vanden Berg. Affiliation: MESA and Research Institute, University of Amsterdam b. Biochemistry: LC number: QP501. B54 Publisher: American Chemical Society Country published: USA Frequency: weekly (except for 1st week of January)
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* Place the top of the cup, being sure that the thermometer is inside the mixture. * After some time, check the temperature in the thermometer and compare results. Results: With 0.1mol HCl: Iron: Initial temperature: 24�C � 1�C Final temperature: 27�C � 1�C Temperature change: 3�C � 1�C Aluminium: Initial temperature: 24�C � 1�C Final temperature: 24�C � 1�C Temperature change: 0�C � 1�C Copper: Initial temperature: 26�C � 1�C Final temperature: 26�C � 1�C Temperature change: 0�C � 1�C Zinc: Initial temperature: 27�C � 1�C Final temperature: 27�C � 1�C Temperature change: 0�C � 1�C Magnesium: Initial temperature: 24�C � 1�C Final temperature: 29�C � 1�C Temperature change: 5�C � 1�C Table 1.0 With
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+ NaOH (aq) --> Na+CH3COO-(aq) + H2O (l) Experimentally, it shows that a mole of acetic acid (CH3COOH) reacts with a mole of magnesium hydroxide (NaOH) (both in aqueous state) to form a mole of Na+CH3COO- and a mole of water. Since 1 dm3 gives one mole of NaOH, the amount used in this experiment (4.95ml) is equivalent to a total of 4.95x10-3 mol. Hence, it reacts with the same amount (in moles) of acetic acid. Then, provided the molar mass of acetic acid (60g mol-1), it can be deduced that 4.95x10-3 mol weights 0.297g: (60g mol-1 * 4.95x10-3 mol = 0.297g)
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sample of salt: sodium carbonate Na2CO3 b) crucible c) burner d) tongs e) weight f) Petri scale PROCEDURES 1) Weigh a crucible. 2) Set the weight with crucible to tare and weigh the proper amount of salt. 3) Prepare the burner to heat and put the salt; start measuring time. 4) After the proper amount of time take the salt on the weight and write the result. 5) Repeat the point 4 after the same of time till the result will not be changing anymore. 6) Calculate the loss of mass in the salt. 7) Find the whole number ratio of that salt in comparison to water.
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Kinetics Lab. How does the molar concentration of hydrochloric acid affect the rate of pressure in a gas releasing reaction?
Total Time of Reaction 90 seconds in all trials Volume of Hydrochloric Acid 15cm3 in all trials Materials: * 250ml flask * 1-hole stopper with gas collection tube * 4.5 grams of sodium carbonate-deca-hydrate 0.5 for each trial (� 0.005g) * Explorer GLX with pressure sensor (�1.75kPa) * Laptop with Data Studio * Stop watch (� 0.005s) * 135ml of hydrochloric acid 45ml of each concentration (�1ml) * Balance Picture: Method: There will be three trials for each of the three different concentrations of hydrochloric acid.
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For this experiment, the conversion of NaOH to NaCl by two different routes was used and the change in enthalpy for each path was measured to test Hess's law. Route one: - NaOH + 2M HCl 2M NaCl 2M NaCl + H2O 1M NaCl Route two: - NaOH + H2O 2M NaCl 2M NaOH + 2M HCl 1M NaCl Materials: - beakers, NaOH, 2M HCl, stopwatch, thermometer, pipettes, measuring cylinder Methods: - for the first route, 4g of NaOH was weighed.
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formula] Rearrange: Calculate molar mass of Water using the mass of Hydrogen Peroxide Calculate the individual % of elements in Water Using the periodic table values: _________ Applying the individual % of elements in Water to the molar mass Conclusion____________________________________________________________ In conclusion the experimental value of the molar mass of oxygen is. To achieve this result, we wrote the chemical reaction, compared the ratio of mole between and, find the mole produced by water using the formula, calculate the molar mass from the mol value, calculate the % of individual elements in water, and finding oxygen's molar mass from the overall molar mass.
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Enthalpies of formation are usually obtained directly from combustion experiments. ?Hc is measured in calories. ?H = mC?T IN THIS EXPERIMENT: We will burn measured masses of a series of alcohols, and calculate the amount of each alcohol burned. Assume that the energy produced is transferred to a measured volume of water, the temperature change of which is calculated. The enthalpy change involved in the combustion of one mole of each alcohol can then be calculated and compared. SAFETY DATA Butan-1-ol FLAMMABLE, Keep away from flames. HARMFUL Wash spillages away with water Ethanol HIGHLY FLAMMABLE, Keep away from flames.
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Aim : To measure the energy value in different types of food, which are macaroni, bread, spaghetti, rice and French fries
Variables : - Independent Variable o Types of food - Dependent Variable o Temperature change of the water above the burning food - Controlled Variable o Mass of food o Angle of incident o Distance from burning food to the test tube o Mass of water Apparatus : - Test Tube - Bunsen Burner - 5 Types of food (French fries, macaroni, spaghetti, rice, bread) - Wooden Clamp - Metal Spoon - Retort Stand - Thermometer - Measuring Cylinder - Distilled Water - Digital Balance Methods : 1.
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The burette was attached to the stand with the help of a clamp. 2. The burette was then closed and 50 ml of NaOH was poured in. 3. 25 ml of weak acid was poured into a beaker with the help of a voll pipette and a magnet was dropped inside. 4. The beaker was then placed on the magnetic stirrer and the stirrer was turned on. 5. The pH meter was calibrated using buffer solutions of pH = 4, and pH = 7.
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Each range of light is defined by the range of frequencies of light vibration. This means that a specific color of light has a frequency. (b) the energy of each photon of light => Light is energy. Photon is an energy packet and it behaves like a particle. Each photon contains different energy. We can know the different colors in the spectrum by the each energy of photon.
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Food irradiation has remedied the scarcity of food but it might cause more harm than good. The application of nuclear chemistry enables the world to preserve produce, meats and dairy products for a longer period of time while keeping the same quality and taste. Gamma rays destroy the majority of bacteria and fungi in the food to sanitize the product of germs, making it safe for patients in the hospital to consume because they need to be surrounded by a sterile environment.
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Therefore the difference in energy output only depends on the compounds which are blended to the alcohols. Apparatus - Thermometer - Metal can x2 - Draught shield x4 - Gloves - Safety spectacles - Heat-resistant mat - Insulation card - 100cm3 measuring cylinder x2 - Spirit burner - Clamp stand - Balance - Matches Substances - E100 Bioethanol - Industrial Ethanol - Water Method The idea to do the experiment the way described is due to knowledge from past experiments and the IB textbook.
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�0.5mL 20.0 19.0 18.0 17.0 16.0 15.0 14.0 13.0 12.0 11.0 10.0 1/V (1/mL) 0.050 0.053 0.056 0.059 0.063 0.067 0.071 0.077 0.083 0.091 0.100 1/V Uncertainty � 0.001 0.001 0.002 0.002 0.002 0.002 0.003 0.003 0.003 0.004 0.005 Sample Calculations Inversing Volume Finding Inverse Volume (1/V)
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0.5M Volume Temperature Table 3-Increase in Pressure over Time as 0.44M and 0.5M react at 22.5 Time (s) Pressure (kPa)�0.2% 10 101.3 20 101.6 30 101.8 40 102.0 50 102.7 60 103.1 70 103.6 80 104.3 90 105.2 100 106.1 110 107.0 120 107.9 130 108.8 140 109.7 150 110.6 160 111.8 170 112.7 180 114.0 Part 4 Element Molarity 0.88 M (3%) 0.5M Volume Temperature Table 4-Increase in Pressure over Time as 0.88M and 0.5M react at 30.0 Time (s)
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