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International Baccalaureate: Chemistry

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  1. Investigating Solutions. In this experiment the effect of concentration of different solutions will be investigated against conductivity The conductivity of an electrolyte solution is a measure of its ability to conduct electricity.

    * If your hair is long tie it back. Variables - Dependent Variable - * Conductivity of solution (�S/m) Will be measured by a conductivity probe connected to a Data Logger - Lab Quest. The range of the probe will be of 0-2000. Independent Variable - * Concentration of solutions (M) This is what I am going to change to have a range of values. The solutions are manually prepared for each concentration. For each solution there will be five concentrations - 1M, 0.8M, 0.6M, 0.4M and 0.2M.

    • Word count: 1547
  2. Experiment to investigate the stoichiometry of the reaction between copper metal and aqueous silver ions.

    Three days later 6) Shake all crystals carefully from the coil and lift it from the solution with tweezers. 7) Rinse any material remaining on the coil back to the beaker. Allow the coil to dry and reweigh it. 8) Allow the silver crystals to settle in the beaker and carefully decant the blue solution. 9) Add 10 mL of AgNO3 and stir gently to dissolve any copper flecks. 10) Decant off the liquid over the settled crystals. Wash with 10 mL of distilled water and decant three more times.

    • Word count: 1080
  3. How much amount of copper sulfate is formed after heating hydrated copper sulfate?

    The controlled variables are the temperature of the room and the pressure of the room and the weight of crucibles that I used. Materials * Bunsen Burner * Tripod * Metal tongs * Metal grid * Digital scale * A Crucible * Hydrated copper sulfate * Goggle Procedure First I weighed the empty crucible with digital scale then I put the hydrated copper sulfate (1.70g)

    • Word count: 425
  4. Formula of a Hydrate Lab. By performing this lab, we will be able to find the molar amount of water in the compounds magnesium sulfate and copper sulfate.

    CuSO4 x 5H2O * ~2-3g. MgSO4 x H2O Procedure: 1. Mass a crucible and record in data table. 2. Place about 2 grams of the hydrate in the crucible and record the mass of the crucible, cover and hydrate salt. 3. Gently heat the crucible and its contents for about 10 minutes. 4. During the last minute of hearing remove the cover so that any moisture which has collected on the underside of the cover can evaporate. 5. When the crucible has cooled completely, determine the mass of the crucible, cover and contents.

    • Word count: 683
  5. Chemistry Lab- Determining enthalpy change of a reaction. Adding zinc to copper sulfate resulted in a displacement reaction that created copper metal to precipitate as a solid.

    recorded for additional 6 minutes Addition of Zinc Powder at 3 minutes, then temp. recorded for additional 6 minutes 180.00 32.0 180.00 38.0 210.00 44.0 210.00 46.0 240.00 49.5 240.00 50.0 270.00 49.5 270.00 51.0 300.00 49.0 300.00 51.0 330.00 48.5 330.00 50.0 360.00 47.5 360.00 49.0 390.00 47.5 390.00 49.0 420.00 47.5 420.00 49.0 450.00 46.5 450.00 49.0 480.00 45.5 480.00 48.0 510.00 45.5 510.00 47.0 540.00 45.0 540.00 46.0 Qualitative Data - Observations: 1. Adding zinc to copper sulfate resulted in a displacement reaction that created copper metal to precipitate as a solid.

    • Word count: 824
  6. Determining the position of unknown element X in the Reactivity Series

    In the experiment, the enthalpy (temperature) change will also show how reactive element X is. For example if X is right above Zinc in the reactivity series i.e. element X is aluminium, then the temperature difference between reacting Al with CuSO4 will be more than reacting Al with ZnSO4 or FeSO4. This is because as the distance (number of elements in between between) the elements increases there is more difference in the reactivity level of the selected elements. When ?H (?Heat) is +ve, the reaction taking place is exothermic and when ?H is -ve, the reaction will be endothermic.

    • Word count: 1160
  7. Using Calorimeter Techniques to Indirectly Determine An Enthalpy Change Using Hess Law

    Temperature ( �C ) � 0.5 �C 0 28 30 28.5 60 27.3 90 27 120 25.9 150 25.5 180 25.1 210 24 240 23.2 270 22.8 300 22 330 21.1 360 18.1 390 18.2 Graph 1: The temperature change during the reaction of Hydrochloric acid and Sodium Hydrogen Carbonate Table 3: The volume of HCL, the mass of weighing bottle & Na2CO3 and mass of Na2CO3 added Volume of Hydrochloric acid (HCL) 100.5 � 0.01 grams Mass of weighing bottle + Na2CO3 35.70 � 0.01 grams Mass of weighing bottle 27.62 � 0.01 grams Mass of Na2CO3 8.08 �

    • Word count: 834
  8. Melting and Freezing point of naphthalene

    For gas, the particles move freely in the container it's in. Solid is a definite shape while liquid and gas are indefinite. Solids stay the same shape while liquids and gasses take the shape of the container it's in. Hypothesis The melting point of Naphthalene is 80�and the freezing point of Naphthalene is 60�. Materials and Equipment * A 500ml beaker * Tap water * Ring Clamp * Wire Gauze * Bunsen Burner * Naphthalene * Test tube holder * Stopwatch * Retort Stand * Beaker Tongs * Thermometers Procedure (methods)

    • Word count: 1074
  9. Properties of different alcohols used as fuels.

    Variables: - Independent variables: 1. Propanol 2. Butanol 3. Pentanol 4. Hexanol - Dependent variables: - Controlled variables: 1. Change in temperature of water which is = 30�C. 2. Volume of distilled water which is heated = 50cm�. 3. There should be a constant distance between the base of the copper calorimeter and the spirit lamp otherwise different amount of energy could escape each time giving us inaccurate results. The distance between the tip of the wick of the sprit lamp and the base of the calorimeter should be 5cm. 4. In order to avoid excessive heat loss, the same calorimeter should be used throughout the experiment.

    • Word count: 1513
  10. Determining the activation energy of a reaction, By using the experimental data and the Arrhenius equation, the activation energy for the reduction of peroxodisulphate ions, S2O82-(aq) by iodide ions, I-(aq) in a clock reaction is found to be approximatel

    The R2 value in this graph is found to be 0.9628, which is quite close to 1. This suggests that this linear line is a good fit of the points. Calculating the activation energy The Arrhenius equation states that, ln k = where k = rate constant A = Arrhenius constant E = activation energy R = Universal gas constant = 8.31 J k-1 mol-1 T = temperature in Kelvin This logarithmic form of the Arrhenius equation resembles a linear function in the form y = mx + b.

    • Word count: 1123
  11. Estimating the Iron(II) content in an iron tablet using a standard solution of potassium manganate (VII)

    19.1ml of potassium manganate solution was used for titration. From this the amount of manganate ions used can be calculated as follows: Amount of present = Mass of present = Since the volume of solution used was 25cm3, one-tenth of the total solution made from the five iron tablets, the above calculation shows that: . Dividing this value by 5, we get 53.3mg of Fe present in each tablet. We may also calculate the amount of Iron(II) Sulfate are present in each tablet: Molar mass of Iron(II)

    • Word count: 823
  12. Investigating the effect of ion concentration in electrolytes on the potential difference in a voltaic cell

    Hypothesis If the concentration of ions in the electrolyte increases, then so will the potential difference in the voltaic cell. When two electrodes are connected in a voltaic cell, the electrode potential depends not only on the nature of the electrodes themselves, but also on the number of ions available in the electrolyte. If there are more ions available, then the appropriate oxidation or reduction reaction would have more chance of occurring. Apparatus * Iron electrode, 3cm x 2cm * Copper electrode, 3cm x 2cm * Iron (II)

    • Word count: 1615
  13. Preparation and Composition of Tin (IV) Iodide

    > The solid was filtered off rapidly by suction. (Tin (IV) iodide is hydrolysed by the moisture in the air) > The product was weighed in a well fitting stopper and the results tabulated. Table of results Mass of well fitting stopper/g (A) 55.3254g Mass of filter paper only/g (B) 3.5860g Mass of well fitting stopper and product/g (A+E1) 57.2186g Mass of filter paper and residual product/g (B+E2) 3.7778g Mass of product in well fitting stopper/g (E1) 1.8932g Mass of residual product on filter paper/g (E2) 0.1918g Total mass of product obtained/g (E1 + E2)

    • Word count: 839
  14. Chemistry - Compare the two metals Zinc and Magnesium

    such as MgO and ZnO, and also these atoms can form salt by replacing two hydrogen atoms of an acid to form MgCl2 and ZnCl2. Question: What are the properties do these two kinds of metal share? What observation will happen? Experiment group: I designed three experiments about Zinc and magnesium: 1. Testing the properties of Magnesium and Zinc 2. Replacement of copper 3. Producing hydroxide 4. What will happen if Zn and Mg metal react with H2S acid. Steps: Some of the experiments are done in home, I bought materials like Magnesium and Zinc from online shopping, and also I got the chance to use chemistry lab in my mother school, so it allows me to investigate deeper.

    • Word count: 792
  15. The aim of our experiment was to find the mass of acetyl salicylic acid in an aspirin tablet and compare it with the manufactures claim.

    * There was a strong smell when the aspirin and water was boiling. * The mixture in the volumetric flask still had solid clumps in it. This we discovered was part of the outside shell of the aspirin tablets. * A thin foamy layer formed on the meniscus of the mixture of the volumetric flask after it was left overnight Calculations: CH3COOC6H4COOH (s) + 2NaOH (aq) � HOC6H4COONa (s) + H2O(aq) Calculations Uncertainties C = and N= C = Concentration Mr = molar mass M = mass V = Volume N = Moles Moles of NaOH = 0.998 mol Concentration of sulphuric acid = 0.0495 mol dm-3 Volume of sulphuric acid = 7.28 cm3 Volumetric flask = 250 ml �0.3 0.12% Pipette = 20.0 mL ??0.1?mL 0.5% N(NaOH)

    • Word count: 1033
  16. The aim of our experiment was to find out the molar mass of the lithium sample and compare the molar mass to the actual molar mass of lithium from the periodic table.

    Titration raw data Table showing the volume of (0.1) hydrochloric acid needed to neutralise the Lithium Hydroxide solution ml) Volumes Trials (ml) (ml) � 0.1 Trial 1 Trial 2 Trial 3 Average Initial Volume (ml) � 0.05 9.1 1.0 17.1 Final Volume (ml) � 0.05 17 9.0 24.9 Change In Volume (ml) � 0.1 7.9 8.0 7.8 7.90 � 0.1 Table showing the volume of (0.1) hydrochloric acid needed to neutralise the Lithium Hydroxide solution ml) Volumes Trials (ml) (ml) � 0.1 Trial 1 Trial 2 Trial 3 Average Initial Volume (ml) � 0.05 19.5 10.3 1.2 Final Volume (ml)

    • Word count: 1300
  17. The aim of this experiment is discover the relationship between the temperature (20C,25C,30C,35C,40C) of the reaction between acidified Potassium Dichromate and Iron using a water bath

    Redox half equations: x3 ( Fe � Fe2+ + 2e- ) Cr2072- + 14H+ + 6e- � 2Cr3+ + 7H2O Cr2072- + 14H+ + 3 Fe � 2Cr3+ 7H2O 3Fe2+ Aim: The aim of this experiment is discover the relationship between the temperature (20�C,25�C,30�C,35�C,40�C) of the reaction between acidified Potassium Dichromate and Iron using a water bath on the rate in which the acidified Potassium Dichromate and Iron react and change colour from yellow to dark purple. The independent variable in this experiment is the temperature. The reaction will be carried out at a range of temperatures.

    • Word count: 1129
  18. The Polarity of a Compound. We also determined that Water (H2O), is the most polar of all our tested compounds. To explain why it`s polar is simple; it has it`s hydrogen bonds (which cause it to be very polar) and the fact that it is in a isosceles triang

    The only disquishing factor that ould affect this in propone is the fact that it contains double bonds. This leads me to believe that there is a higher electronegativity in double bonded compounds than single bonded one`s. Why this happens ould be anything but the main theory for why is that when oxygen bonds with a hydrogen, then the polarity of the hydrogen atom on the other side of the oxygen will reduce its strength. This cancelation of the oxygen's negative polarity because of the Hydrogen can be compared to when Ethanol and Methanol reduced the polarity of the molecule.

    • Word count: 1362
  19. What affects the rate if reaction more, increasing concentration or increasing temperature?

    Record data and repeat process until the amount needed for CaCo3 is done Time (seconds) Volume (mm3) 15 0 30 0 45 0 1.00 9 1.15 17 1.30 27 1.45 37 2.00 45 2.15 53 2.30 66 2.45 71 3.00 78 3.15 80 3.30 87 3.45 95 4.00 103 Concentration of acid= 1 molar Amount of CaCo3= 1.5 grams For these results I did take me a while to set it up since I was working alone and I had to find someone to help me read the amount of volume. As you can see it did take quite some time for the CaCo3 to start reacting.

    • Word count: 1205
  20. The Haber process involves reacting 1 mole of nitrogen gas with 3 moles of hydrogen gas to make 2 moles of ammonia.

    The nitrogen is obtained from the fractional distillation of liquid air and the hydrogen from heating steam with methane. Heat is given out during the reaction to make ammonia heat is produced. This is called an exothermic reaction. As the reaction making ammonia is reversible, adding heat causes the back reaction to be favoured. This means that if ammonia is required (that is, the forward reaction is to be favoured)

    • Word count: 499
  21. Hesss Law Lab, use Hesss law to find the enthalpy change of combustion of magnesium which is a highly exothermic reaction.

    Part 2 I measure out 50 cm3 of 1.00 mol/dm3 of the HCl solution using a graduated cylinder. Then I transferred it into the Styrofoam calorimeter. I weighed off approx. 0.40 g of magnesium oxide using a weighing boat and a scale. I measured the temperature of the of the HCl solution every 30 seconds for 3 minutes. After exactly 3 minutes, I added the magnesium oxide from the weighing boat. I stirred it using the thermometer and read the temperature every 10 seconds for 2 minutes and every 30 seconds for another 3 minutes.

    • Word count: 4175
  22. The purpose of this experiment is to to prepare a solution of primary standard of potassium hydrogenphthalate C8H5O4K, which can be used to standardise water-soluble bases such as sodium hydroxide solution.

    As a consequence, solutions made from such substances must be stanardised against a substance of known purity. We call them primary standards. Chemicals � Potassium hydrogenphthalate (C8H5O4K) Apparatus � top loading balance (weighing scale) � weighing bottle � beaker � volumetric flask Procedure � We started by weighing 5 g of potassium hydrogenphthalate accurately in a weighing bottle. � I poured the content of the weighing bottle into a beaker and i reweighed the the weighing bottle. I also made sure that no residue of the chemical was left in the weighing bottle.

    • Word count: 480
  23. Investigating Glue. We expect the result the casein in milk and textured soy protein in soybean milk have comparable sticking strength as starch contained in commercial glue. The significant advantage of the production of our protein glues is that protei

    Protein molecules are highly folded, resulting in a great contact surface area and exposure of the hydrophobic bonds. When two surfaces of substances like wood or paper are held together by protein, linkages are formed in between the molecules, and the two surfaces are stick together and are difficult to separate. We expect the result the casein in milk and textured soy protein in soybean milk have comparable sticking strength as starch contained in commercial glue. The significant advantage of the production of our protein glues is that proteins in expired food can be recycled and reused to make the useful glue.

    • Word count: 1071
  24. IB IA: Determination of Heat of Neutralization

    = Temperature difference, T3 Since the concentration of the each of the acids and bases is 1 M, which is 1 moldm-3. Therefore, number of moles of acids or bases used for each experiment = 1 x volume of each acid or base used Experiment 1: Equation for the experiment: HNO3(aq) + NaOH(aq) � NaNO3(aq) + H2O(l) Heat evolved = mc? = 0.1 x 4.18 x 5.5 = 2.299 kJ Number of moles of acids used = 1 x 0.05 = 0.05 moles From the equation, 1 mole of HNO3 reacts with 1 mole of NaOH and gives 1 mole of water.

    • Word count: 1387
  25. IB IA: Gas Law Experiment - testing Boyles Law, Charles Law and Ideal Gas Law.

    Height of gas � 0.5 mm Volume of gas � 0.5 mm PV 100.0 163.00 63 196 238.0 238.0 46648 114.0 158.00 44 177 243.0 243.0 43011 117.0 147.00 30 163 248.0 248.0 40424 121.0 134.00 13 146 253.0 253.0 46938 144.0 132.00 12 145 258.0 258.0 37410 *Assuming that the diameter of the tube is constant, then the volume of the gas directly proportional to the height of gas column. Evaluation: The experiment shows the relationship between the pressure of the gas and its volume at constant temperature.

    • Word count: 996

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