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International Baccalaureate: Chemistry

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  1. My IB chemistry research project. Molecular gastronomy. Can we devise new cooking methods that produce unusual and improved results on the texture and flavour of food?

    * Application Statement: The purpose of this experiment is to determine new culinary technique to create a new and uncommon and enhanced outcome to food. The whole process of preparing, eating, sensing, and enjoying food involves tremendously complex chemistry, physics, and biochemistry. For years, a new culinary trend called 'molecular cooking' has been touted as the most exciting development in haute cuisine. [Culinate - Eat to Your Ideal] Molecular Gastronomy will be the change to how we perceive food to our taste buds, and how it will affect the mood we're in.

    • Word count: 1359
  2. Crude Oil

    In simple terms, Crude Oil is a treasure trove of useful substances. Not only is Crude Oil used to produce fuel for cars, trucks, airplanes, boats and trains, but it is also used for a wide variety of other products including asphalt for roads, lubricants for all kinds of machines, plastics for toys, bottles, food wrap and computers. This is the main reason as to why it causes such excitement amongst the societies of the world. You can say that Crude Oil is what keeps the world spinning.

    • Word count: 1761
  3. Aspirin Lab Report

    This range of colors determines the color change interval and it expresses the pH range. Phenolphthalein indicator shows acid form when the color is clear and a base form when the color is pink. The approximate range of change in color is when the pH is 8 to 9.8. Purpose The purpose of this lab is to experimentally determine the molar mass of pure aspirin(acetyl salicylic acid) present in an aspirin tablet using a titration. Hypothesis Variables Dependent: Independent: Controlled variables How to control them Materials Amount 0.100 M NaOH Biuret Ethyl alcohol Various strengths of aspirin Phenolphthalein indicator Goggles 50-mL Erlenmeyer flasks Mortar and pestle 150mL beakers Funnel Procedure Raw Data Aspirin 1 Aspirin

    • Word count: 1297
  4. Free essay

    Energy content Cal/g

    12. Immediately place the burning food sample under the can of water. 13. Determine the temperature change of the water 14. Repeat the procedure as many times as necessary to obtain appropriate data for analysis. 15. Determine the energy content in the food in Cal/g. 16. Using the nutrition information on the back of the package , determine the percent error. Calculations notes: *In order to calculate Theoretical energy content 1 oz was considered to be approximately 28.35g * Note it is assumed that the mass of the water inside the calorimeter did not change throughout the course of the reaction Raw Data Table Trial Initial Mass of food (+/- .005g)

    • Word count: 2006
  5. Combustion of alcohols lab report

    Results: Table of Results Name of alcohol Weight of calorimeter with 80 cm^3 of water (g) Initial weight of spirit burner (g) Weight of spirit burner after burning (g) Initial temperature of water (?C) Maximum temperature reached (?C) Ethanol 158.54 156.03 155.71 20.00 32.00 Propanol 158.04 139.18 138.85 21.00 34.00 Butanol 159.18 165.46 165.18 22.00 34.00 Pentanol 159.32 159.36 159.04 21.00 33.00 Hexanol 158.37 174.93 174.61 21.00 34.00 Heptanol 158.03 151.46 151.08 20.00 35.00 Octanol 159.54 164.25 163.90 22.00 39.00 Nonanol 159.67 174.74 174.55 20.00 31.00 Table of data Name of alcohol Energy liberated (J) Molar Mass (g)

    • Word count: 1387
  6. Percent Yield of a Precipitate

    Filter Paper 0.40 (g � 0.01g) Na2CO3(H2O 5.05 (g � 0.02g) CaCO3 & Filter Paper 4.29 (g � 0.01g) Filter Paper 1.42 (g � 0.01g) CaCO3 2.87 (g � 0.02g) Theoretical CaCO3 Precipitate CaCl2(2H2O + Na2CO3(H2O ( 2NaCl + CaCO3(3H2O mass 3.68g 5.05g volume 0.0500L 0.0500L molarity 0.500M 0.814M initial moles 0.0250mol 0.0407mol 0 0 change in moles -(0.0250mol) -(0.0250mol) +2(0.0250mol) +(0.0250mol) final moles 0 0.0157mol 0.0500mol 0.0250mol 0.0250mol CaCO3 x 100.09g CaCO3 = 2.50g CaCO3 1 mol CaCO3 Experimental CaCO3 Precipitate: 2.87g CaCO3 Total % Uncertainty = 7.91% DISCUSSION: In this lab, calcium carbonate dihydrate, CaCl2(2H2O was reacted with sodium carbonate monohydrate, Na2CO3(H2O to yield a precipitate of calcium carbonate, CaCO3.

    • Word count: 506
  7. Determination of an Equilibrium Constant

    + SCN-(aq) ?FeSCN2+(aq) One- one ratio between SCN- & FeSCN2+ Moles of FeSCN2+ n=MV = (0.002) (0.0020) n= 0.000004 mol SCN-= 0.000004 mol FeSCN2+ Molarity of FeSCN2+ n=MV 0.000004= (M) (0.05) M=8.0 x 10-5 M Equation for Graph: y=3256.1x + 0.0049 (y=Absorption, x= [FeSCN2+]) Part Two: Prepare and Test Equilibrium Systems Table Two Test Tube Number Absorbance 1 0.026 2 0.111 3 0.185 4 0.235 5 0.285 Sample

    • Word count: 474
  8. Strong and Weak Acids And Bases

    Sodium Hydroxide 11.0 Green 11.83 Table 2 - Percent Errors and Percent Uncertainties with ph Paper Substance Percent Error | Theoretical - experimental | x 100 = percent error Theoretical Percent Uncertainty 0.1 M hydrochloric acid | 1.0 - 1.0 | x 100 = 0.0 % error 1 0.5 x 100 = 50.0 % uncertainty 1 0.01 M hydrochloric acid | 2.0 - 2.0 | x 100 = 0.0 % error 2 0.5 x 100 = 25.0 % uncertainty 2 0.1 M ethanoic acid | 2.9 - 3.0 | x 100 = 3.4 % error 2.9 0.5 x 100 =

    • Word count: 2998
  9. To Investigate the Effectiveness of Antacid products you can buy

    Antacids prevent the acid reacting with damaged stomach lining, allowing the ulcer to heal. However, the dosage of antacids affects the desired result. If the dosage was too low, it would have little to no affect on neutralising the excess acid. At the same time, if the dosage is too high, the acid would be neutralised too much, resulting in a basic pH in the stomach. This can sometimes be mistaken for excess acid in the stomach, so more antacid is taken which increases the alkalinity in the stomach. This is called alkalosis. Indigestion can be used to describe any discomfort in the stomach, however once the antacids neutralise the excess acid to alleviate the pain, the body produces more acid.

    • Word count: 1268
  10. Investigating a factor which may (or may not) affect the value of an equilibrium constant (Kc)

    Kc >> 1 if the reaction almost goes to completion and Kc<<1 if the reaction hardly takes place. If the value of the equilibrium constant lies between 10^-2 and 10 ^2 then the reactants and the products will both be present in noticeable amounts in the equilibrium system. Le Chatelier's principle states that as long as the temperature remains constant then the value of the equilibrium constant will also remain constant. However, Le Chatelier's Principle also states that the equilibrium system will react in order to remove extra heat, causing the reaction to proceed in the reverse direction, converting products back to reactants.

    • Word count: 1444
  11. Preparation of Aspirin Lab

    + 3 (15.999) + 6 (1.0079) = 138.1216 +/- 0.0000 g/mol Relative Molecular Mass of Aspirin: Mass of carbon: 12.011 g/mol Mass of oxygen: 15.999 g/mol Mass of hydrogen: 1.0079 g/mol Mass of Aspirin: 9 (12.011) + 4 (15.999) + 8 (1.0079) = 180.1582 +/- 0.0000 g/mol Theoretical Yield of Aspirin: Mass of Salicylic Acid: 1.0167 +/- 0.0001 g Relative Molecular Mass of Salicylic Acid: 138.1216 g/mol Relative Molecular Mass of Aspirin: 180.1582 g/mol Theoretical Yield: 1.0167g x (1 mol/138.1216 g)

    • Word count: 1115
  12. Titration Lab

    The pipette made the amount of redox constant for every trial, and made the data more accurate. 3. In order to control the amount of potassium permanganate, we have measured the solution with the same plate and same scale. Since we have used the same materials, the amount used was very close. 4. To control the amount of force put in to mix the solution, I used my right hand for every trial and did not vary the length and procedure to mix.

    • Word count: 1027
  13. Allotropes of Carbon

    Now, carbon is one of the common allotropes known in Chemistry, and also in the world around us. For example, if you take diamond, the hardest solid object known to man, is an allotrope of carbon. Diamonds are mostly known for its jewelry, and for its high melting point. A diamond is indeed, a solid state and has the same properties as carbon. Another allotrope of carbon is graphite.

    • Word count: 403
  14. Calcium Lab

    Using a 100 mL graduated cylinder, add 40 mL of 1 M hydrochloric acid into the beaker. Reaction 1 is finished. 5) Weight out 40 g of sodium carbonate and add it to the beaker from reaction 1. You are now finished reaction #2. Record your observations. 6) Set up the equipment for filtration. 7) Filter out the liquid portion into another beaker. Keep the solid portion and let it dry on the filter paper until next class. 8)

    • Word count: 866
  15. Determining the Formula of Magnesium's Oxide

    Measure the mass of the crucible with and without the strips of magnesium, and record the data in a table. 5. Heat the magnesium as shown in the diagram below, taking note of observations, until the magnesium appears to have completely been oxidized. 6. Let the oxide and crucible cool, then using tongs to move the crucible, mass the crucible containing the new formed magnesium oxide. 7. Find the difference between the masses of the crucibles containing MgO and Mg to find how many grams of oxygen had been gained by the magnesium.

    • Word count: 939
  16. Lab Report - Flame Test

    * some metal salts > sodium chloride > sodium carbonate > sodium sulphate > lithium chloride > potassium chloride > potassium sulphate > strontium chloride > calcium sulphate > calcium carbonate > calcium chloride > copper carbonate > copper chloride * Spectroscope * Cobalt glass Safety Precautions:- * Safety goggles and latex gloves must be worn. * Hydrochloric acid is corrosive and can cause severe injury. If you spill acid on yourself, immediately flush the affected area with water for 2-3 minutes and notify the teacher.

    • Word count: 720
  17. The Enthalpy of Neutralization

    -12.5 � 1.0 -13 � 1.0 Experiment 4.1 - The reaction between sulfuric acid and 2.00mol�dm-3 sodium hydroxide. Table 4.1: Temperature of H2SO4 and NaOH, separately and after mixing Reagent Temperature (�C) for Trial 1 Temperature (�C) for Trial 2 25cm3 of 2.00mol�dm-3 H2SO4 21 � 0.5 21 � 0.5 25cm3 of 2.00mol�dm-3NaOH 21 � 0.5 21 � 0.5 Mixture of H2SO4 and NaOH 33 � 0.5 33.5 � 0.5 Change in temperature (?T) -12 � 1.0 -12.5 � 1.0 Experiment 4.2 - The reaction between sulfuric acid and 4.00mol�dm-3 sodium hydroxide. Table 4.2: Temperature of H2SO4 and NaOH, separately and after mixing Reagent Temperature (�C)

    • Word count: 2740
  18. Free essay

    Enthalpy. This experiment's aim is to find out, enthalpy change of a reaction, and to determine whether it is exothermic or endothermic.

    Repeat steps 1 - 5 but this time use citric acid in place of Copper Sulphate and 3 grams of Sodium Carbonate instead of zinc. 7. Calculate energy change for the amounts of substance used. 8. Calculate the amount of the reactant in solution in the cup. 9. For each reaction calculate energy change per mole of the reactant which was in solution at the start. 10. Write a symbol equation for the first reaction and a word equation for the second one.

    • Word count: 629
  19. Making Insoluble Salts by Precipitation. Aim: to observe what happens when two solutions are mixed and to use the data obtained to establish rules of solubility for a number of salts.

    Do as many test as time and material permit. Make a table, and record your results, while also leaving place for the results you have not been able to record. Include all results in your table. Analyse and conclude using all the results. Results: Sulphate (-2) Carbonate (-2) Hydroxide (-1) Chloride (-1) Bromine (-1) Iodide (-1) Zinc (+2) Clear colourless solution ZnSO4 Cloudy white precipitate Zn2CO3 White precipitate Zn(OH)2 Clear colourless ZnCl2 Clear colourless ZnBr2 Clear colourless ZnI2 Aluminium (+3) Clear colourless AlSO4 Slight white precipitate Al2(CO3)3 Scant white precipitate AI(OH)3 Clear colourless AlCl2 Clear colourless AlBr2 Clear colourless AlI2 Sodium (+)

    • Word count: 675
  20. Fractional distillation of crude oil

    Turn on the tap. 4. Place two boiling stones into the conical flask and then pour in the crude oil into the flask. Place the flask right above the micro-burner as shown in the diagram. 5. Heat the crude oil mixture slowly. Record at which temperature one of the compounds in the mixture evaporate, and then collect it in the small test tube after it passes through the condenser. 6. Repeat step 5 until maximum temperature has been reached and/or no more compounds evaporate.

    • Word count: 722
  21. Stratospheric Ozone and CFCs

    ("Stratospheric Ozone: Background Material" par. 7). The substances found in the spray cans are CFCs. CFC is short for chlorofluocarbons. CFCs are made of a number of different elements. Chlorine, Fluorine, and Carbon are the elements found in CFCs. The chemical equations for CFCs are: CFCl3 + UV Light ==> CFCl2 + Cl Cl + O3 ==> ClO + O2 ClO + O ==> Cl + O2 When products that contain CFCs are used, such as Styrofoam, aerosol spray cans, etc., the CFCs slowly rise into the atmosphere.

    • Word count: 1674
  22. Estimating the % purity of marble by back titration method

    a small quantity of the fine powdered marble sticks to the butter paper and does not react with the HCl at all. Also, while transferring the crushed CaCO3 some particles could have also been blown away by the wind. Thus the disparity in the masses used could account for the different values obtained. 2. HCl left in the pipette: being a manual instrument, there is no definite way of making sure that each and every drop of the acid that was measured has been transferred to the conical flask, this reduces the volume of acid used and such a change in any one of the reading will directly affect the value of the % purity.

    • Word count: 629
  23. Marie Curie

    One of the photographs that were taken was one of his wife's hands, complete with her ring. This photo showed the skeletal structure of her hand, and the ring that was placed on top (Peters and Slowiczek par 4). Roentgen's wife placed her hand in the path of x rays, which Roentgen created himself. He created x rays "by beaming an electron ray energy source onto a cathode tube." (Peters and Slowiczek par 4). These "photographs" intrigued Becquerel, inducing him to research the phenomena of florescence and phosphorescence. In March of 1896, he discovered that florescence and phosphorescence were similar to each other; as well as to x rays, but there is also an important difference.

    • Word count: 1423
  24. The effect of the temperature on a reaction rate

    We put the flask on a paper with a black cross on it. When we could not see the cross anymore, we have stopped the clock and note the time. We redo the same experiment with different temperature. To change temperature of the experiment we use a micro burner to heat the water and measure its temperature with a thermometer and then we put the sodium thiosulphate solution and the hydrochloric acid and we time the reaction. We do this processes 4 times. IV)

    • Word count: 508
  25. Experiment -Effects on the temperature of snow when you add salt

    Calcium magnesium acetate (CMA) Calcium carbonate CaCO3, magnesium carbonate MgCO3, and acetic acid CH3COOH -9�C Safest for concrete & vegetation Works better to prevent re-icing than as ice remover Magnesium chloride MgCl2 -15�C Melts ice faster than sodium chloride Attracts moisture Potassium acetate CH3COOK -9�C Biodegradable Corrosive Potassium chloride KCl -7�C Fertilizer Damages concrete Sodium chloride (rock salt, halite) NaCl -9�C Keeps sidewalks dry Corrosive, damages concrete & vegetation Urea NH2CONH2 -7�C Fertilizer Agricultural grade is corrosive II)

    • Word count: 598

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