• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

A study of trends in period 3

Extracts from this document...


Lab Experiment 3: A study of trends in period 3 Purpose: The purpose of the experiment is to study the trends in properties of the oxides and chlorides across the third period of the periodic table. Apparatus: - Eye protection. - 1 rack + 4 test tubes - Full range indicator paper. - Samples of the following oxides: NaOH, MgO, Al203 - Samples of the following chlorides: NaCl, MgCl2, AlCl3, PCl5 - Hot plate - 500 ml beaker with water Procedure 1. Fill 3 test tubes with about 3cm3 of distilled water. 2. Add a very small measure of each oxide to the test tubes. 3. Test the pH of each solution obtain from each oxide by using a full-range indicator. 4. Record the results in the data table. 5. Repeat the same steps except this time use the sample of chlorides instead of the oxides. Data Table 1: Properties of the oxides in period 3 Oxide Formula NaOH MgO Al2O3 State at room temp (s) (s) (s) Appearance White solid White powder White precipitate Volatility low low Low Conductivity of molten oxide Good good Good Solubility in water Soluble soluble Insoluble pH of solution in water 14 9 7 Classification of oxide(acidic, basic or amphoteric ) ...read more.


- Aluminium is the only insoluble oxide that did not react with water. The oxide ions it contains are held too strongly in the solid lattice to react with water. However, it is amphoteric which means it reacts with both acids and alkalis. Equation of the reaction: with acids: Al2O3(s) + 6HCl(aq) --> 2AlCl3(aq) + 3H2O(l) with alkalis: Al2O3(s) + 2NaOH(aq) + 3H2O(l) --> 2NaAl(OH)4(aq) - Due to the 1st 3 oxides being only available, the trends drawn will be based on them only. Unfortunately with only 3 oxides, no trend in the states of oxides can be drawn from the results since the ones recorded all have the same state. The trend shown in the character of the oxides is that it begins with strongly basic oxides on the left hand side and changes to less basic and neutral oxides on the right hand side of the data table. The trend in the structures of oxides is from metallic ionic oxides on the left to less ionic substances on the right side. Data Table 2 Analysis: -Both NaCl and MgCl2 dissolve in water giving neutral solution that contains separate aqueous ions. ...read more.


Therefore, trends could not be fully observed in the properties of the properties of oxides in period 3. The only major trend that can be found in the properties of the oxide is that goes from a strongly basic solution to a less and more neutral solution when it reaches aluminium oxide. However, the chlorides were all available and so solid results could be drawn from them. With the chlorides it starts with neutral solutions but across the period the pH decreases as acidic solutions are formed. The reactions of chlorides with water also became much more violent across the period.. The possible sources of error in this experiment may include: - Material used may have been tampered with and so would affect the overall results. - Wrong measurements were taken. - Error arrising from human judgement. Although my experiment was successful, many improvement could have been made to both my experiment and too the experiment. This includes: - Repeating the measurements for more trials so that more accurate answers could be found. - A possible modification to this experiment would be to use sodium oxide rather than sodium hydroxide. - Make sure that none of the compound is accidentally spilled out. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our International Baccalaureate Chemistry section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related International Baccalaureate Chemistry essays

  1. Experiment - The Empirical Formula of Magnesium Oxide

    was excluded, i.e., it became 0.9, demonstrating that most of the dots lie on the linear line whose gradient is 0.7. In addition, the percentage yield in Table 4.1 shows the completion of the reaction. None of the results were close to 100%, suggesting magnesium did not react completely.

  2. Acids/Bases Design Lab. How does a change in the pH value of a solution ...

    (The solution was decanted into a waste beaker) The remaining zinc was then placed (with the use of tongs) in another clean, and dry 50cm3 beaker that was already massed, labeled 'Beaker CRT1', in which it was washed with distilled water from distilled water bottle pumps.

  1. Hydrogen Gas Collection Lab CE (6/6) A sample of solid magnesium ribbon, measuring approximately ...

    The uncertainty associated with the amount of hydrogen gas yielded is 2%, meaning that the excess amount of gas collected cannot be attributed to random error of measurements. We cannot attribute the percentage difference to a lack of quality in the data collected, considering a highly accurate electronic balance was

  2. Strong and Weak Acids And Bases

    Human errors were much more significant in using the ph meter. Contamination between the acids could have occurred, when the pH meter was used to test the different acids. The graphs the ph meter and the computer produced may have also been inaccurate because the solution was not stirred enough with probe, while the computer was taking in the results.

  1. Period 3 Chlorides. Aim: To study the chlorides of period 3 elements and ...

    This oxyacid may then also dissociate. In the case of phosphorus trichloride, for example, the reaction is: PCl3 (l) + 3H2O (l) ==> P(OH)3 (aq) + 3 H + (aq) + 3 Cl - (aq) P(OH)3 or H3PO3 is phosphoric (III)

  2. To determine the standard enthalpy of formation of Magnesium Oxide using Hess Law.

    has been determined to be 34.05oC and the room temperature at which the solution was at 0s was determined to be 32.1oC, the change is temperature can be given by the following formula: ?T = 34.05 ? 32.1 = 1.95K Since total heat released = Q = mc.?T * Q

  1. Discovering the formula of MgO

    5,80 4 0,076 10,864 10,984 0,120 0,044 36,6 8,32 Mass of Product= (Mass of crucible with product)-(Mass of crucible) Uncertainty in mass of product= (Uncertainty in mass of crucible with product) + (Uncertainty in mass of crucible) =0,001+0,001=±0,002 Mass of Oxygen== (Mass of product)-(Mass of magnesium)

  2. The chemistry of atmospheric and water pollution.

    systems continuously deposit the ions into the oceans whilst at the same time being replenished. TDS are mainly composed of salts ? ionic compounds. A large amount of TDS is indicative of unclean water as clean water has very low concentrations of TDS.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work