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A study of trends in period 3

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Introduction

Lab Experiment 3: A study of trends in period 3 Purpose: The purpose of the experiment is to study the trends in properties of the oxides and chlorides across the third period of the periodic table. Apparatus: - Eye protection. - 1 rack + 4 test tubes - Full range indicator paper. - Samples of the following oxides: NaOH, MgO, Al203 - Samples of the following chlorides: NaCl, MgCl2, AlCl3, PCl5 - Hot plate - 500 ml beaker with water Procedure 1. Fill 3 test tubes with about 3cm3 of distilled water. 2. Add a very small measure of each oxide to the test tubes. 3. Test the pH of each solution obtain from each oxide by using a full-range indicator. 4. Record the results in the data table. 5. Repeat the same steps except this time use the sample of chlorides instead of the oxides. Data Table 1: Properties of the oxides in period 3 Oxide Formula NaOH MgO Al2O3 State at room temp (s) (s) (s) Appearance White solid White powder White precipitate Volatility low low Low Conductivity of molten oxide Good good Good Solubility in water Soluble soluble Insoluble pH of solution in water 14 9 7 Classification of oxide(acidic, basic or amphoteric ) ...read more.

Middle

- Aluminium is the only insoluble oxide that did not react with water. The oxide ions it contains are held too strongly in the solid lattice to react with water. However, it is amphoteric which means it reacts with both acids and alkalis. Equation of the reaction: with acids: Al2O3(s) + 6HCl(aq) --> 2AlCl3(aq) + 3H2O(l) with alkalis: Al2O3(s) + 2NaOH(aq) + 3H2O(l) --> 2NaAl(OH)4(aq) - Due to the 1st 3 oxides being only available, the trends drawn will be based on them only. Unfortunately with only 3 oxides, no trend in the states of oxides can be drawn from the results since the ones recorded all have the same state. The trend shown in the character of the oxides is that it begins with strongly basic oxides on the left hand side and changes to less basic and neutral oxides on the right hand side of the data table. The trend in the structures of oxides is from metallic ionic oxides on the left to less ionic substances on the right side. Data Table 2 Analysis: -Both NaCl and MgCl2 dissolve in water giving neutral solution that contains separate aqueous ions. ...read more.

Conclusion

Therefore, trends could not be fully observed in the properties of the properties of oxides in period 3. The only major trend that can be found in the properties of the oxide is that goes from a strongly basic solution to a less and more neutral solution when it reaches aluminium oxide. However, the chlorides were all available and so solid results could be drawn from them. With the chlorides it starts with neutral solutions but across the period the pH decreases as acidic solutions are formed. The reactions of chlorides with water also became much more violent across the period.. The possible sources of error in this experiment may include: - Material used may have been tampered with and so would affect the overall results. - Wrong measurements were taken. - Error arrising from human judgement. Although my experiment was successful, many improvement could have been made to both my experiment and too the experiment. This includes: - Repeating the measurements for more trials so that more accurate answers could be found. - A possible modification to this experiment would be to use sodium oxide rather than sodium hydroxide. - Make sure that none of the compound is accidentally spilled out. ...read more.

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