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Acid Rain

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Introduction

Acid Rain Acid rain is basically defined as any kind of precipitation that has a pH-level lower than 5.5 (? 5.5), meaning that is more acidic than the usual precipitation. Precipitation is by nature already slightly acidic, because of the natural carbon dioxide in our atmosphere gets dissolved into the rain. The aqueous solution of CO2 is than Carbonic acid, H2CO3: Co2 + H2O - H2CO3. H2CO3 is as an aqueous solution not stable, and thus it ionizes into water, forming the ions H3O+ and HCO3-: CO2 + H2O - HCO3- + H3O+.When the precipitation, which can be for example rain, snow or fog, has a pH-level lower than 5.5 it is considered acidic and is due to human output of nitrogen and sulphur compounds. They both go through many complex steps until they become sulphuric acid (H2SO4) and Nitric acid (HNO3), which one would find in Acid rain. sulphuric acid originates from its compound. The sulphur dioxide reacts with Oxygen to make sulphur trioxide: 2SO2 +O2 -> 2SO3. Than the sulphur trioxide reacts with water to make sulphuric acid: SO3 + H2O -> H2SO4. Nitric acid is made when nitrogen dioxide reacts with water, which also makes nitrous acid. ...read more.

Middle

The acid rain in Scandinavia also causes ground acidity. This affects the fertility of the soil. Important nutrients, such as Ca or Mg, get washed away by the acid rain before the plants can use for growth. Also Aluminum (Al3+) is released. This kind of aluminum is poisonous to plants; it damages the root hair of the plants and reduces the absorption of phosphor and other important nutrients. Many trees die from malnutrition and a weak defense mechanism. Soil that is already on slightly acidic bedrock will suffer from severe problems, on the other hand soil that is on calcareous bedrock will benefit from the acid rain. Acid rain can also directly damage the nature, instead of, for example, triggering a chemical reaction or to prevent the absorption of nutrient, which are harming the nature indirectly. If the plants are near strong emission source, such as power plants without a filter system, there will be a lot of SO2 in the air. The SO2 will destroy the surface of needles and leaves, which will result in uncontrolled water loss and the prevention of photosynthesis. (10, 6) The Acid rain also affects the economy of the Scandinavian countries. Two major industries are the forestry and fishery. ...read more.

Conclusion

This would have several benefits, one of them many being able to stop acid rain destroy our nature. (9, 3, 6) Sources: 1. "Acid Rain :: Environmental Facts ::." Young People's Trust for the Environment - Information for Kids on Climate Change and Other Environmental Facts and Charities. Web. 15 Nov. 2010. <http://www.ypte.org.uk/environmental/acid-rain/1>. 2. "Acid Rain." Department of Chemistry. Web. 15 Nov. 2010. <http://www.chemistry.wustl.edu/~edudev/LabTutorials/Water/FreshWater/acidrain.html>. 3. "Acid Rain." Elmhurst College: Elmhurst, Illinois. Web. 15 Nov. 2010. <http://www.elmhurst.edu/~chm/vchembook/190acidrain.html>. 4. "Acid Rain." Encyclopedia of Earth. Web. 15 Nov. 2010. <http://www.eoearth.org/article/Acid_rain?topic=49506>. 5. "Acid Rain." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Web. 15 Nov. 2010. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Acid_rain>. 6. Briney, From Amanda. "Acid Rain - Causes, Effects, and Solutions." Geography Home Page - Geography at About.com. Web. 15 Nov. 2010. <http://geography.about.com/od/globalproblemsandissues/a/acidrain.htm>. 7. "Forestry - Norway." Encyclopedia of the Nations - Information about Countries of the World, United Nations, and World Leaders. Web. 15 Nov. 2010. <http://www.nationsencyclopedia.com/Europe/Norway-FORESTRY.html>. 8. "Chemistry Tutorial : Acid Rain." AUS-e-TUTE for Astute Science Students. Web. 15 Nov. 2010. <http://www.ausetute.com.au/acidrain.html>. 9. "Reducing Acid Rain | Acid Rain | Clean Air Markets | US EPA." US Environmental Protection Agency. Web. 15 Nov. 2010. <http://www.epa.gov/acidrain/reducing/#restore>. 10. "What Is Acid Rain and What Causes It?" Almanac of Policy Issues. Web. 15 Nov. 2010. <http://www.policyalmanac.org/environment/archive/acid_rain.shtml> ?? ?? ?? ?? 1 ...read more.

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