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Aim: To study and investigate the effect of temperature on the rate of the reaction between sodium thiosulphate and hydrochloric acid.

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Introduction

VIKRAM GANESHAN 11-D CHEMISTRY HL Planning (a) Aim: To study and investigate the effect of temperature on the rate of the reaction between sodium thiosulphate and hydrochloric acid. Theory: For a reaction to take place the particles of the reactants have to collide. As particles approach each other there is repulsion between the electron clouds of the particles. In order for the reaction to occur the collision must have sufficient energy to overcome this repulsion. Frequently energy is also required to break some of the bonds in the particles before the reaction can take place. The collisions that result in a chemical reaction are known as effective collisions. In order for effective collisions to take place, a minimum amount of energy called activation energy is required which varies from reaction to reaction. Thus in order for a reaction to occur, the particles must collide and the collision must be energetically effective so as to overcome the activation energy of the reaction. The steric factor must also be taken into consideration as the collision must bring the reactive parts of the molecule into contact in the correct orientation. Thus if anything increases the collision rate, the reaction rate also increases. The rate of a chemical reaction depends on a number of factors. 1. Size of particles 2. ...read more.

Middle

7. Repeat the experiment at different temperatures. 8. Plot a graph of time against temperature. Data Collection It was observed that as soon as the contents of the two test tubes were mixed, the colour of the solution darkened and it gradually turned opaque and the cross was not viewable from the top. S.No. Beaker No. Temperature/ + 0.1?C Temperature/+ 0.1K Time / + 0.01s Reaction Rate (1/t) / +0.01s-1 1. A1 28 oC 301 135.00 s 0.007407 2. A2 38 oC 311 90.05 s 0.01105 3 A3 48 oC 321 61.10 s 0.01637 4. A4 58 oC 331 36.50 s 0.027397 5. A5 68 oC 341 22.01 s 0.045433 Data Analysis The graph for reaction rate against the temperature of the reactant mixture is given below: The hypothesis has been proved right. The time taken for the reaction to be complete decreases with increasing temperature. Evaluation The graph of the rate against temperature is a rising exponential curve, which shows that temperature is proportional to the rate of a chemical reaction and is an exponential function of the rate. The main principle on which it was based on was that in the main reaction, as sulphur is produced, it forms a dirty-blackish colloid and hence the cross below becomes invisible, thus providing a certain way to measure the end of the reaction. ...read more.

Conclusion

3. More accurate instruments must be used such as a burette with a better degree of accuracy for precise recordings and calculations. 4. Each time for one set of readings, It is preferred that the same person records the time after the disappearance of the cross so as to make the experiment fair as otherwise different reaction times of different people will adversely affect the experiment. Modifications Several modifications can be made to this experiment to obtain a better result. * The range of temperature could have been larger, taking into account temperatures lower than room temperature. This would enable us to judge the relation between temperature and rate of reaction more accurately. * This experiment is based upon human perception of the time taken for the cross to disappear. This could be a major area of error. An improvement could be the addition of an indicator, which could indicate the end of the reaction. * Instead of using a measuring cylinder to measure the volumes of sodium thiosulphate and water, a pipette could be used. This ensures that all the readings are taken using exactly same volumes of liquid. Conclusion Through this experiment, it is concluded that the absolute temperature is proportional to the reaction rate and the graph of reaction rate against temperature is a rising exponential curve. It was also inferred that for every 10?C rise in temperature the reaction rate doubles. 1 ...read more.

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