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Calcium Carbonate and Hydrochloric Acid

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Introduction

Calcium Carbonate and Hydrochloric Acid Surface area affecting the reaction rate Introduction In this experiment calsium carbonate (CaCO3) will be put into a flask and then mixed with Hydrochloric Acid (HCl). The reaction is: CaCO3(s) + 2HCl(l) --> CaCl2(aq) + H2O(l) + CO2(g) The purpose of the experiment is to determine whether or not increasing surface area of marble chips will increase the reaction rate. Reaction rate is a way of measuring how fast the reaction takes place. So the higher the reaction rate the faster the reaction takes place and the lower is the reaction time is. Research Question How does reaction rate change with increasing surface area of calcium carbonate in hydrochloric acid ? Hypothesis With increasing surface area of marble chips the reaction rate will also increase. Justification For the same mass of the calcium carbonate, powder has a larger surface area than marble chips. As the collision theory states for a chemical reaction to occur particles need to collide at a certain speed and angle. With increasing surface area, more surface area is available for the collisions to occur on. ...read more.

Middle

as more product would be produced * If there is too little acid in the powder experiment it would decrease reaction rate (collision theory) * If there is too little powder in the powder experiment it would decrease the loss of mass over time as less product would be produced In this experiment the rate of reaction is determined by the formation of the product (CO2(g)). When CO2(g) is formed inside the flask, the gas leaves the flask. As it is only CO2(g) that leaves the flask, a graph with the loss of weight over time will show how quick the product (CO2(g)) was formed. But it is important to note that it is not the final loss over time, of the reactions, that is to be compared, as it should be the same for both reactions. The reason for that is, that the same mass of calcium carbonate produces the same mass of the product (CO2(g)), whether it is chips or powder. So to find which of the two (marble chips or powder) have the fastest reaction rate one must either compare the loss over time at a given time (but before one of the reaction is over, as when the reaction is over no more product is produced and the comparison of the two will show irrelevant data) ...read more.

Conclusion

These measurements and actions are: > The exact amount of hydrochloric acid and calcium carbonate used (both chips and powder) > How quick the stop clock was started, after the reaction started. > How precise the intervals were in between the reading (as explained in the analysis this could be the reason for some of the recording being a little bit off) > Gas rising and falling again as it couldn't escape through the cotton As all these could not possibly have stayed constant throughout the experiment these are the inaccuracies that could have caused the results not to be as exact as possible. As explained before the experiment was conducted without any noticeable errors, so the only improvement, that could take place next time this experiment is conducted, is the one that concentrates on more precision of the above mentioned inaccuracies. Another improvement that could make sure that there is no confusion, whether the reaction has stopped or not, which caused the stop of the recordings of the marble chips experiment, is to either increase the amount of the same recordings before stopping from 3 to 5 or say that the weights has to stay the same for a few minutes. 1 Neuss, Geoff. Chemistry for the IB Diploma, 2001 ?? ?? ?? ?? ...read more.

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