• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Chemistry Course Notes

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Unit 1: Atoms The Atomic Theories - Heisenburg Uncertainty Principle: it is impossible the exact position and momentum of a single particle. - Pioneer of quantum mechanics Quantum Theory - There are 4 sets of number to determine where the electron may be found in an atom a. The principle quantum number 'n': the energy level of an atom b. Secondary Quantum number 'l' [0ln-1] is the subdivision of the energy level c. Magnetic Quantum number 'm' determines orbital type [-lm+l] d. Spin Quantum number 'm' determines direction of spin [1/2] - Note that excited state electrons may move from one energy level to the next level - Ground state is when its back to normal Electron Configuration - l letters: s, p, d, f, g, h - n values:1 2 3 4 5 6 - l values: 0 1 2 3 4 5 The Periodic Table - Group : up to down, similar properties - Period: left to right, metallic to non-metallic - Group 1: Alkali Group 2: Alkaline Earth Metals Group 17: Halogens Group 18: Noble Gasses Trends in Periodic Table - Atomic Radius a. Decreases from left to right (effective to nuclear charge) --> more protons and electrons b. ...read more.

Middle

Unusually high boiling point and melting point. Hydrogens bond onto the negative poled molecule. Valency - The repulsion theory VSPER Is used to predict geometries of molecules - The Main Postulate: structure around a given atom is determined principally by minimizing electron pair repulsions - Gets as far away as possible (lone pairs have strongest repulsions) - Activity Series - used for single displacements reactions a. Shows the reactivity strengths between elements (which would displace the other) - Solubility - if in the solubility chart the substance has low solubility in it then a precipitate most likely has formed which means a reaction has probably occurred. - Types of Reactions - combustion, single displacement, double displacement, neutralization, synthesis. REDOX Reactions - Oxidation - where the atom LOSES electrons - Reduction - where the atom GAINS electrons - VERY IMPORTANT** - the oxidizing agent GAINS electrons but the oxidant LOSES electrons - the reducing agent LOSES electrons but the reductant GAINS electrons Law of __________. - Definite Proportions: A compound always contains same elements in the same ratios - Multiple Proportions: Two elements combine in the same ratios always. - Relative Atomic mass: Carbon 12.0 on the dot. One C-12 is given 12u - Isotope Abundance: Percent of an isotope in an element sample Balancing Nuclear Equations - Three types ...read more.

Conclusion

Burnable b. Soft, and usually do not have a hard mineral structure c. Usually liquids or solids MP<300 Hydrocarbons - Contains only hydrogen and carbon (hence the name) - Homologous series - when one compound differs from a preceding one by a -CH group - Alkanes are saturated compounds meaning they have full single bonds - The general formula for alkanes is Naming those Hydrocarbons Name Molecular Formula Structural Formula Phase at Room Temp methane gas ethane - gas propane -- gas butane --- gas pentane ---- liquid hexane ----- liquid heptane ------ liquid Naming Continued - Cyclo - when a ring is formed - Alkenes - when there is a double bond formed - Alkynes - when there is a triple bond formed Hydrocarbon Reactions - Hydrocarbons are non-polar (use of London-dispersion forces) - Cracking - when the hydrocarbon breaks up into smaller alkanes - Reforming - smaller alkanes combine to larger alkane - Combustion - basically full combustion: alkane + --> + Heat Reactions - Exothermic - energy is released - Endothermic - energy is absorbed - Basic heat equation is q = mc where q = energy in J, m = mass of object, c = specific heat capacity and delta t = change in temperature. This is the general equation - There is also , generally use when combustion is mentioned or when dealing with calorimetry ?? ?? ?? ?? ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our International Baccalaureate Chemistry section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related International Baccalaureate Chemistry essays

  1. IB chemistry revision notes

    n=x Continuum- e- shells merge- ionisation energy n=5 Pfund lines n=4 (N shell) Brackett lines n=3 (M shell) Transitions causing Paschen lines. Infrared region. n=2 (L shell) Transitions causing Balmer lines. Visible light region. n=1 (K shell) Transitions causing Lymen lines.

  2. hess's law

    of moles of hydrated copper (II) sulphate which were involved in the chemical reaction i.e. 0.020 moles and not for 1 mole of hydrated copper (II) sulphate. Therefore: 0.020 moles = (836 � 209 J) 1 mole = x x = [(836 � 209 J)

  1. Properties of Hydrocarbons

    I believe that the hydrocarbons were not soluble in water because the van der Waal's forces that exist between its molecules are not strong enough to break the hydrogen bonding in water, which causes the two layers to form. The solubility test in dichloromethane showed that the hydrocarbons used are soluble in organic solvents.

  2. IB Chemistry Kinetics Exam Questions and Answers

    CH3CH2Cl + OH-1 --> HO-(CH3)CH2-Cl 2) HO-(CH3)CH2-Br --> CH3CH2OH + Cl-1 a. If the first step is the rate determining step, what is the rate law? b. What is the overall order of the reaction? c. What is the molecularity of the reaction?

  1. Thermodynamics: Enthalpy of Neutralization and Calorimetry

    The temperatures of each of the solutions are taken and recorded. The same steps as before are followed including weighing the calorimeter before and after anything is added. The solutions are then poured into the calorimeter one at a time, covered, and stirred for two minutes.

  2. testing liquis for polarity

    magnetized so that the same attraction force is kept during all the experiment and no possible inaccuracy in the deflection of the streams can happen. * Deflection * The deflection, in some cases, was difficult to record. Unfortunately, we had no instrument to measure the deflection but our own eyes.

  1. To determine the molecular mass of an unknown alkali metal carbonate, X2CO3.

    the compound Na2CO3 is stable in air which means that other than the inherent impurities, there is not much scope for contamination of the compound due to any significant reaction with air, like in the case of NaOH or other similar chemicals where storage under air tight conditions is a must.

  2. Period 3 Chlorides. Aim: To study the chlorides of period 3 elements and ...

    reacting with the non-metal ions (of chlorine). Ionic bonds are very hard to break because of the strong forces of attraction between the ions, and so that's why sodium chloride and magnesium chloride both have such high melting and boiling points.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work