• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Chemistry Course Notes

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Unit 1: Atoms The Atomic Theories - Heisenburg Uncertainty Principle: it is impossible the exact position and momentum of a single particle. - Pioneer of quantum mechanics Quantum Theory - There are 4 sets of number to determine where the electron may be found in an atom a. The principle quantum number 'n': the energy level of an atom b. Secondary Quantum number 'l' [0ln-1] is the subdivision of the energy level c. Magnetic Quantum number 'm' determines orbital type [-lm+l] d. Spin Quantum number 'm' determines direction of spin [1/2] - Note that excited state electrons may move from one energy level to the next level - Ground state is when its back to normal Electron Configuration - l letters: s, p, d, f, g, h - n values:1 2 3 4 5 6 - l values: 0 1 2 3 4 5 The Periodic Table - Group : up to down, similar properties - Period: left to right, metallic to non-metallic - Group 1: Alkali Group 2: Alkaline Earth Metals Group 17: Halogens Group 18: Noble Gasses Trends in Periodic Table - Atomic Radius a. Decreases from left to right (effective to nuclear charge) --> more protons and electrons b. ...read more.

Middle

Unusually high boiling point and melting point. Hydrogens bond onto the negative poled molecule. Valency - The repulsion theory VSPER Is used to predict geometries of molecules - The Main Postulate: structure around a given atom is determined principally by minimizing electron pair repulsions - Gets as far away as possible (lone pairs have strongest repulsions) - Activity Series - used for single displacements reactions a. Shows the reactivity strengths between elements (which would displace the other) - Solubility - if in the solubility chart the substance has low solubility in it then a precipitate most likely has formed which means a reaction has probably occurred. - Types of Reactions - combustion, single displacement, double displacement, neutralization, synthesis. REDOX Reactions - Oxidation - where the atom LOSES electrons - Reduction - where the atom GAINS electrons - VERY IMPORTANT** - the oxidizing agent GAINS electrons but the oxidant LOSES electrons - the reducing agent LOSES electrons but the reductant GAINS electrons Law of __________. - Definite Proportions: A compound always contains same elements in the same ratios - Multiple Proportions: Two elements combine in the same ratios always. - Relative Atomic mass: Carbon 12.0 on the dot. One C-12 is given 12u - Isotope Abundance: Percent of an isotope in an element sample Balancing Nuclear Equations - Three types ...read more.

Conclusion

Burnable b. Soft, and usually do not have a hard mineral structure c. Usually liquids or solids MP<300 Hydrocarbons - Contains only hydrogen and carbon (hence the name) - Homologous series - when one compound differs from a preceding one by a -CH group - Alkanes are saturated compounds meaning they have full single bonds - The general formula for alkanes is Naming those Hydrocarbons Name Molecular Formula Structural Formula Phase at Room Temp methane gas ethane - gas propane -- gas butane --- gas pentane ---- liquid hexane ----- liquid heptane ------ liquid Naming Continued - Cyclo - when a ring is formed - Alkenes - when there is a double bond formed - Alkynes - when there is a triple bond formed Hydrocarbon Reactions - Hydrocarbons are non-polar (use of London-dispersion forces) - Cracking - when the hydrocarbon breaks up into smaller alkanes - Reforming - smaller alkanes combine to larger alkane - Combustion - basically full combustion: alkane + --> + Heat Reactions - Exothermic - energy is released - Endothermic - energy is absorbed - Basic heat equation is q = mc where q = energy in J, m = mass of object, c = specific heat capacity and delta t = change in temperature. This is the general equation - There is also , generally use when combustion is mentioned or when dealing with calorimetry ?? ?? ?? ?? ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our International Baccalaureate Chemistry section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related International Baccalaureate Chemistry essays

  1. testing liquis for polarity

    It was possible to use the ruler but it was also very difficult as everything happened very fast. Due to this, there might be some inaccuracy in the results as they were recorded with what we saw and estimated to be the deflection.

  2. Properties of Hydrocarbons

    I believe that the hydrocarbons were not soluble in water because the van der Waal's forces that exist between its molecules are not strong enough to break the hydrogen bonding in water, which causes the two layers to form. The solubility test in dichloromethane showed that the hydrocarbons used are soluble in organic solvents.

  1. liquids polarity

    Conclusion Relating compounds structures and the deflection of its jet when a charged was induced, let know relatively the liquids polarity. Mostly every of the liquids contain hydrocarbons and oxygen, except Heptane, which ended to be a non-polar covalent compound.

  2. IB Chemistry Kinetics Exam Questions and Answers

    Calculate the rate constant c. Determine the half-life in the initial concentration of [A] is 2.0 mol dm-3 d. What is the molecularity of this reaction? 28. Define half-life 29. Given the graph to the right, determine the half-life of the reaction: A + B --> AB 30.

  1. IB chemistry revision notes

    state to an exited state. * When e- drop from a higher level to a lower level they emit energy (a photon of light). This energy corresponds to a particular and shows up as a line spectrum. * Jumps to the n=1 have the highest and the smallest.

  2. IB questions and answers on Atomic Theory

    # of electrons 26 31 26 12 12 10 6 8 6 6 6 6 92 143 92 17 18 18 7. Fill in the chart: Atomic # Symbol # protons Mass # # neutrons Charge 3 electrons 33 As 33 75 42 -3 36 64 Gd 64 155 91

  1. Thermodynamics: Enthalpy of Neutralization and Calorimetry

    With this information the Heat Capacity can be calculated through the formula: (m �?T�s)hot = (m �?T � s)cold + (Heat Capacity � ?T). Now with the heat Capacity of the calorimeter, the specific heat of the metal cylinder can be found.

  2. Period 3 Chlorides. Aim: To study the chlorides of period 3 elements and ...

    Aluminium chloride on the other hand is different from the other two chlorides, even though it is an ionic compound. From the table on the previous page, we can see that one of these differences is that it has a low melting and boiling point when compared to the other two ionic compounds.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work