Chemistry IA design format
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Contents Page Number Areas 1 Title 2 Contents 3 1.0.1, 1.0.2, 1.0.3 4 1.1.1 5 1.1.2, 1.1.3 6 1.1.4,1.2.1 7 1.2.2 8 Bibliography 1.0.0- Introduction 1.0.1- Focus Question- If the mass of magnesium reacted with hydrochloric acid is changed will the temperature of the solution increase and the total mass decrease. 1.0.2- Hypothesis- If the mass of magnesium that is reacted with hydrochloric acid is changed the temperature of the solution will increase and the total mass will decrease. 1.0.3- Theory- The reaction between magnesium and hydrochloric reaction is written as follows, Mg(s)+ 2HCL (aq)------ (MgCl2(aq)+H2 (g) (Ng, 2008, pg 1). This reaction goes through two distinct changes that both have an effect on the energy change in the reaction. Enthalpy refers to changes in energy in a compound (Assut, 2008, pg 1). Two distinct changes can occur. An endothermic change occurs when the energy being absorbed is grater then the energy being released whereas and exothermic change is when the energy being released is greater than the energy being absorbed.
In a mass of a substance there is a certain amount of material that can be reacted. By increasing mass the amount of substance that may be reacted increases. Therefore if mass increased the amount that of substance reacted will increase as well providing there is enough of the reactant. This will in turn increase the energy change. Also if more of the substance reacts with the reactant more of the reactant will be used up. This means that if the magnesium is increased there will be more reaction with hydrochloric acid; this means that more hydrogen will be released as gas and the total mass of the solution will decrease. Henceforth the change in heat should be greater if their entire solution is lighter as more of the hydrochloric acid has been reacted and hydrogen lost as a gas. How the reaction works (Figure 1) Mg(s)+ 2HCL (aq)------ (MgCl2(aq)+H2 (g) 1.1.0- Controlling variables 1.1.1- Variables (Table 1) Variable Type of variable Method for control Mass of magnesium Independent Mass will change for each sample, sample range will be 2g, 4g, 6g, 8g and 10g Heat change Dependent This will be calculated by subtracting the final heat of the solution by the initial heat of the solution.
Apparatus 1 Pair of rubber gloves Apparatus 1 Measuring cylinder 50mls Apparatus 1 1.1.4- Safety aspects (table 3) Aspect Risk MSDS reference Control Hydrogen gas giving off reaction Extremely flammable Risk of explosion if heated under confinement. R22 R44 S16 S60 Keep area well ventilated Hydrochloric acid Harmful if swallowed Toxic by inhalation Causes severe burns Risk of serious damage to eyes R22 R23 R25 S01 S27 S23 S17 S25 S35 S26 S45 S38 S60 S51 S63 S09 S40 S07 Magnesium Highly flammable Contact with water liberates extremely flammable gas (hydrogen) Spontaneously flammable in air. R11 R15 R17 S30 S22 S24 S29 S51 S09 S26 S60 1.2.0- Method for the collection of data 1.2.1- Protocol diagram (Figure 2) 1.2.2- Procedure 1- Record weight of empty calorimeter 2- Fill calorimeter with 40mls of hydrochloric acid 3- Measure weight and subtract this weight by weight of calorimeter and weight of the magnesium sample and record. 4- Heat sample to 25 degrees Celsius with hotplate 5- Immediately insert 2 grams of magnesium strips 6- Once reaction has been fully completed (No more magnesium or no more hydrochloric acid) record the final temperature.
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