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Chemistry Laboratory Report --- Evaporation: Intermolecular Attractions

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Introduction

Chemistry HL Chemistry Laboratory Report Evaporation: Intermolecular Attractions 1. Data Collected Table 1: Data collected by the class on different liquids Sample Physical Appearance Initial Temperature (?)�0.2 Final Temperature (?)�0.2 Change in Temperature (?) Polarity Molecular Formula Structural Formula Acetic Acid Clear liquid 25.2 24.6 -0.6 polar C2H4O2 CH3COOH Acetone Clear liquid 23.0 20.0 -3.0 polar C3H6O CH3COCH3 Aniline Grape Colour liquid 25.2 25.2 0.0 polar C6H7N (CH3)2C6H3NH2 Butanol Clear liquid 25.4 24.2 -1.2 polar C2H6O CH3CH2OH Butan-2-one Clear liquid 25.0 10.0 -15.0 nonpolar C4H10O CH3OHCH3 Benzaldehyde Clear liquid 22.0 22.0 0.0 polar C7H6O C6H5CHO Carbon Tetrachloride Clear liquid 25.0 9.2 -15.8 nonpolar CCl4 CCl4 Cyclohexane Clear liquid 27.0 10.0 -17.0 nonpolar C6H12 CH3CH2CH2CH2CH3 Cyclohexane Clear liquid 24.0 24.0 0.0 nonpolar C6H12 CH3CH2CH2CH2CH3 Chloroform Clear liquid 26.2 9.6 -16.6 polar CHCl3 CHCl3 Cyclohexanol Clear liquid 24.2 24.8 0.6 polar C6H11OH C6H11OH Di-ethyl Ether Clear Liquid 25 -12 -37.0 nonpolar C4H10O CH3CH2OCH2CH3 Ethyl Acetate Clear liquid 24.0 11.2 -12.8 nonpolar C4H8O2 CH3COOCH2CH3 Ethyl Ether Clear liquid 24.0 -9.0 ...read more.

Middle

timing starts at 0 seconds, and thus the whole record from time 0 to the end is all needed * The scale of the y-axis is used because the lowest temperature recorded is 10 and the highest value is 27, so the scale below 10 is not needed. Chemical: Butanol Appearance: Clear, colorless liquid Molecular formula: C2H6O Structural Formula: CH3CH2OH Measure division: 30 seconds Time used: 7 minutes (300 seconds) Table 3: Temperature of Butanol at different time Time /seconds 0 30 60 90 120 150 180 210 240 270 300 330 360 390 420 Temperature /? 25.4 25.8 26.0 25.8 25.6 25.4 26.2 25.0 25.0 24.8 24.6 24.4 24.2 24.2 24.2 Graph 2: Change of temperature of butanol with time * The scale of x-axis is used because timing starts at 0 seconds, and thus the whole record from time 0 to the end is all needed * The scale of the y-axis is used because the lowest temperature recorded is 24.2 and the highest value is 26.2, so the scale below 24.2 is not needed. ...read more.

Conclusion

This will mean that energy will be taken from other molecules, and thus the average kinetic energy will be reduced, which will cause a drop in temperature. Cyclohexane is non-polar, so the intermolecular forces will be weaker, as it only have van der Waals' forces, and thus it is easier to break the bonds for evaporation, and thus the temperature change is larger. * The second experiment is a test with butanol. The decrease in temperature is only a little, because the chemical is polar and thus the intermolecular forces are stronger than non-polar, making it harder to evaporate, and that is why the temperature decrease for evaporation is slight. 3. Evaluation * The data attained by the experiments may not be accurate, since the contact between the thermometer may not be full, and thus the decrease in temperature is not properly recorded * Some of the temperature of the chemicals may not b recorded as I is out of range of the thermometer, which in turns result in inaccurate data. Reference: www.wikipedia.com ...read more.

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