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Chemistry Limiting Reactant Lab

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Introduction

Investigation of the Limiting Reactant in a Reaction Data Collection Mass of Na2CO3(aq) 1.9 � 0.01g (� 0.7%) Mass of CaCl2(aq) 1.4 � 0.01g (� 0.9%) Concentration of Na2CO3(aq) Solution 0.70M � 0.02M (� 3%) Concentration of CaCl2(aq) Solution 0.50M � 0.02M (� 3%) Volume of 0.72M Na2CO3(aq) Solution 0.025 � 5 x 10-4L (� 2%) Volume of 0.50M CaCl2(aq) Solution 0.025 � 5 x 10-4L (� 2%) Mass of Filter Paper 1.0 � 0.05g Qualitative Observations of the Reaction - White precipitate formed - Liquid appears foamy, white at first, but then starts to clear up - Precipitate can be clearly identified at the top - After precipitate is filtered, powder appears white and cake-like Mass of Filter Paper and Precipitate 2.2 � 0.05g Mass of precipitate (CaCO3(aq)) 1.2 � 0.1g (� 8%) Calculating Uncertainties for Concentration Na2CO3(aq) CaCl2(aq) 1) Na2CO3(aq) + CaCl2(aq) --> 2NaCl(aq) + CaCO3(s) m=1.9 � 0.01g m= 1.4 � 0.01g MM= 105.99g/mol MM=110.98g/mol MM= 100.09g/mol Assume Na2CO3(aq) is limiting Assume CaCl2(aq) is limiting USE n=cv 1mol Na2CO3(aq) ...read more.

Middle

Therefore, one would not be left with only solid NaCl if the solution were evaporated. 2) What theoretical volume of the Na2CO3 solution used in this experiment would result in no excess reactant? Therefore, the theoretical volume of the Na2CO3 solution is 19 �2mL. 3) A precipitation reaction occurs when 50.0mL of 0.50M BaCl2(aq) is mixed with 75.0mL of 0.75M of Na2CO3(aq). The only precipitate is the BaCO3(s) formed. a) Write the balanced equation that describes this reaction. BaCl2(aq) + Na2CO3(aq) --> BaCO3(s) + 2NaCl(aq) b) Which chemical is the limiting reactant? BaCl2(aq) + Na2CO3(aq) --> BaCO3(s) + 2NaCl(aq) V=0.0500mL V=0.0750mL MM=197.34g/mol Assume BaCl2(aq) is limiting Assume Na2CO3(aq) is limiting 1 mol BaCl2(aq) : 1 mol BaCO3(s) 1 mol Na2CO3(aq): 1 mol BaCO3(s) 0.025 mol BaCl2(aq) : 0.025 mol BaCO3(s) 0.056 mol Na2CO3(aq): 0.056 mol BaCO3(s) BaCl2(aq) is the limiting reactant and Na2CO3(aq) is excess. c) Predict the theoretical mass of BaCO3(s) that should form. The theoretical mass of BaCO3(s) is approximately 4.9g d) This experiment was conducted and the percent yield was found to be 82%. ...read more.

Conclusion

Using another object such as a cleaning rod would bring other factors into the experiment as some of the precipitate may have coated the cleaning rod which would lead to more inefficiencies. Lastly, human error is another weakness associated with this experiment. This could account for any spillage or human mistakes that may have been made throughout the course of the experiment. In order to improve the investigation one can use filter paper that is the same size as the funnel as this will omit room for human error. This will prevent some solution from being poured into the second funnel that was used in the experiment not allowing the precipitate to be filtered correctly. In addition, after filtering the solution through once and rinsing the beaker with distilled water, the solution should be filtered through the filter paper once again in order to increase the efficiency. Thus, if some precipitate went through once, it may be able to be caught on the filter paper the second time. In conclusion, the experiment proved to be quite successful with a percentage yield of 92 � 8%. In order to improve the experiment further, the improvements suggested above can help ensure a more accurate experiment. ?? ?? ?? ?? ...read more.

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