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Crystallization - Rock candy is collection of sugar crystal.

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Introduction

Title: Crystallization Name: Anas Mansour Group members: Shaun, Raina, Michelle. Date: 10/5/2008 Introduction: Have you ever eaten a rock candy? Rock candy is collection of sugar crystal. It looks and tastes good and dissolves fairly well when placed in a cup of tea or coffee. Firstly I will be describing the shape of crystals. To understand the solid shape we need to have some insight into the structure of simple crystals and the forces that hold them together, Single-crystal X-ray diffraction is one of the ways of determining the structure of the crystal. A crystal acts as a three dimensional diffraction grating to a beam of X-ray. To have a closed packed structure in three dimensions we must add a second layer of atoms. The spheres of the second layer sit in half of the hollows of the first layer. If we write this sequence we would build up the layers ABABABA..... Etc. This is known as a hexagonal close-packing (hcp). As shown is the diagram below. Side view of two anion layers, Mg3 (OH) 6, structure. However there are still possibilities to add a third layer which would go directly over the first layer. The third layer which we will label C will have the sequence ABCABCABC.... etc. ...read more.

Middle

Aim: The effect of temperature on the growth and size of a crystal, within a short period of time. Hypothesis: I think if we place one crystal in the freezer and one in normal room temperature, then I believe the one in the freezer will crystals quicker and will slightly be bigger than the one in normal room temperature, because the quicker the temperature cools the more you are rapidly increasing the crystallization rate. Materials: - - 2 x Beaker - 2 x Small crystal - Alum solution (250ml) - 2 x Pencil - Scale - Bunsen burner - Food colour - 2 x String (10cm) - Ruler - Stop watch - Alum solution ratio 1:6.9 Crystallization Method: firstly 250 ml of water is added to 36ml Alum solution (Note: one teaspoon of water = 5 mL; one tablespoon = 15 mL), after have repeated the process two times and placed in separate beakers (or 1/4 cup container such as a small glass or jar), then the mixture has been heated to approximately 60�C, and left for a few minutes to settle to minimize the chance of your seed crystal on the end of the thread to melt, as well as not applying the crystal to late allowing the crystal to form on the edge of the beaker. ...read more.

Conclusion

one in the freezer will crystals quicker and will slightly be bigger than the one in normal room temperature, because the quicker the temperature cools the more you are rapidly increasing the crystallization rate. Evaluation: There were quiet a number of errors in the experiment some of which are; putting the seed crystal to late, forgetting to cover the beaker with foil and miss reading the temperature. The most impotent thing was the temperature. It has a great affect on the rate of crystallisation, as well as the time that the crystal is left to crystallize. Further experimentation with the Alum, would possibly improve the crystal development and getting more time to work on the experiment (2-3 days). Possibly experiment a little more with the solution or having a group of students that simply grow alum crystals and observe the shape, while other may modify parts of the experiment by placing the beaker in a cooler or warmer condition for further experimentation. Furthermore mixing solutions of salt and alum to see what sorts of crystals are formed and whether the crystals will segregate or grow together, those are all possible ways to discover a lot more about how crystals really form. ?? ?? ?? ?? Page 7 of 2 1 ...read more.

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