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Design Lab, HCl + Marble chips

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Introduction

Sagar Sood IB Chemistry HL Yr. 2 Ms. Rachel 30th Jan, 10 Introduction How does change in concentration of HCl affect the mass of carbon dioxide evolved in the reaction: CaCO3 + 2HCl --> CaCl2 + H2O + CO2 Increasing the concentration of an acid increases the number of collisions per second between particles, therefore, the rate of reaction increases. The more concentrated the reactants (in this case, it is hydrochloric acid), the more collisions per seconds occur between the particles, hence creating more mass of products in less time. The reaction will start faster in comparison to the rate at the end of the reaction. This is because when the two reactants are first mixed, their concentrations are both at their highest. As the experiment goes on, the concentration of the reactants will decrease, so the reaction will slow down until it finally comes to a stop. Independent Variable: Concentration of HCl (mol L-1) Dependant Variable: Mass of CO2 (grams) Controlled Variables: > The mass of marble powder (grams) - if the total mass of the marble powder is varied, the reaction will not be a fair test, so the mass must be kept the same to 2.00g � 0.01g > Volume of acid (mL) ...read more.

Middle

4. Put the beaker on the electronic balance and pour in the 50mL of HCl (1.00M). 5. Put the 2.00g of marble powder besides the beaker but on the electronic balance (this will measure the mass of the acid, the beaker and the marble powder without the reaction) 6. Put the reading values on the electronic balance to zero. 7. Now use the measured out marble powder and put it in the beaker and start the stop watch immediately. 8. After 2 minutes, record the value on the electronic balance. This is the mass of CO2 evolved in the reaction. (the value will be negative because mass is being lost as CO2) 9. Carefully clean out the beaker completely using tap water. 10. Repeat steps 2-9, but use the other concentrations of 1.50M, 2.00M, 2.50M and 3.00M respectively and repeat 3 trials for each concentration. 11. After the experiment has been completed, put the cleaned materials back to their original place. Mass of CaCO3 for each trial (g � 0.01g) Time given for each reaction (s � 0.01s) 2.00 120.00 Molarity (M�0.01M) Mass of CO2 (g � 0.01g) ...read more.

Conclusion

This definitely affected the data and the graph and made the calculated rate decrease since more water reacted with the marble powder. This made the reaction slower hence decreasing the calculated rate of reaction. Apart from that, there was another error. The experiment was performed over a period of 2 days. Hence, there was a difference in temperature for the reaction. Increase in temperature increases the rate of reaction since there is more kinetic energy that lets the H+ ions react faster with CaCO3 atoms. Hence this decreased the rate of reaction because the temperature increased the number of collisions in the system. To eliminate these errors, a number of precautions can be taken. It should be made sure that the graduated cylinder is completely clean and dry before each trial. Though being time consuming, this can be done by using ethanol before every trial. Ethanol would mix with the water droplets and vaporize in seconds hence cleaning and drying the graduated cylinder. Also, it must be made sure that every time the mass of the marble powder should be used that is required. Instead of using a funnel, a weighing boat can be used to transfer it into the beaker. A weighing boat doesn't let the particles stick to it, hence eliminating this error. ...read more.

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