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# Determination of water of hydration

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Introduction

Date: 21/8/2009 Determination of water of hydration Data collection and processing * Table 1: Mass (g) of the crucible Initial mass (g) After placing hydrated copper sulfate After 1st heating After 2nd heating After 3rd heating Mass ( � 0.01 g) 43.78 46.08 45.22 45.23 45.22 Observation of copper sulfate No copper sulfate Light blue After heating for about 2-3 minutes, of the powder turns lighter and then into grey-white. ...read more.

Middle

= (46.08 � 0.01) - (43.78 � 0.01) = 2.30 � 0.02 (g) * Mass of water (g) = ( 46.08 � 0.01) - (45.22 � 0.01) = 0.86 � 0.02 (g) * General reaction: hydrate anhydrous salt + water CuSO4.xH2O CuSO4 + xH2O m 2.30 � 0.02 (g) 0.86 � 0.02 (g) M 160 +18x (g/mol) 18x (g/mol) * n xH2O (mol) = n CuSO4.xH2O = = (0.86 )(160 + 18x) = )18x 160(0.86 ) + 18x(0.86 ) = )18x 160(0.86 ) = 18x(1.44 0.04) ...read more.

Conclusion

Evaluation Limitations Effects Improvements The number of experiments carried out is not enough (Random error) If the data obtained are inaccurate; as a result, the value of x calculated will be inaccurate Do the experiment many times When cooling the crucible, water can be reformed in copper sulfate (random error) Weight of the crucible may increase Use a data logger computer to take the mass of the crucible continuously until the mass remains unchanged The flame is too strong (random error) Some copper sulfate molecules may be decomposed Keep the flame at a reasonable height and temperature ...read more.

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