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Determining the mass of calcium carbonate obtained

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Introduction

Lab Experiment 2: Determining the mass of calcium carbonate obtained Purpose: The purpose of the experiment was to investigate the mass of calcium carbonate obtained from the reaction between calcium chloride and sodium carbonate. Apparatus: - Three beakers (250 - ml) - Spatula - Balance � 0.1g - Filtration setup - Filter paper - Stirring rod - Plastic wash bottle Materials: - Sodium Carbonate - Calcium chloride - Distilled water Procedure 1. Weigh out 4.0g of calcium chloride (111g/mol) and dissolve in enough distilled water. 2. Weigh out 6.0g of sodium carbonate (106g/mol) and dissolve in enough distilled water. 3. Pour the sodium carbonate solution into the beaker containing calcium chloride solution. 4. Stir the mixture. Set up the filtration apparatus. Weigh the filter paper and then filter the mixture. Rinse the beaker and empty the contents in the funnel. Wash the precipitate with distilled water several times. 5. Place the filter paper with the precipitate and leave it to dry out. After it is completely dry, then weigh the dry filter paper with the precipitate. ...read more.

Middle

Molar mass Having looked at the mole ratio, it is apparent that since calcium chloride has the lowest number of moles present, it is therefore the limiting reagent. The limiting reagent calcium chloride is therefore used to calculate the theoretical mass of calcium carbonate that can be obtained: Theoretical yield = number of moles of limiting reagent x mass of calcium . carbonate = 0.03604 x (40.08 + 12.01 + 16 + 16 + 16) = 0.03604 x 100.09 = 3.6g 3. Therefore theoretically the mass of the calcium carbonate that can be obtained is 3.6g. The theoretical yield assumes that everything reacts perfectly, and we are able to recover everything 100%. These ideal conditions are rarely present and so we would expect the actual yield to be less than the theoretical yield for this reason. To calculate the experimental mass, the following calculation is done: Experimental mass = Mass of filter paper with the precipitate - Mass of filter paper = 5.1g - 2g = 3.1g As expected the experimental mass is lower than the theoretical mass. ...read more.

Conclusion

In practise the theoretical yield based on the balanced chemical equation is never achieved owing to impurities in reagents, side reactions and other sources of experimental error. The possible sources of error in this experiment may include: - Material used may have been tampered with and so would affect the overall results. - Wrong measurements were taken. - Error arrising from human judgement. - The balance only recorded 2decimal points. - The filter paper may not have been left long enough to dry. A possible modification to this experiment would be to make the sodium carbonate the limiting reageant rather then the calcium chloride as it was in this case. This would be done so that we would have a smaller number of moles of sodium carbonate then calcium chloride. Although my experiment was successful, many improvement could have been made to both my experiment and too the experiment. This includes: - Repeating the measurements for more trials so that more accurate answers could be found. - Using an accurate method to measure the mass, so as to reduce the errors in the experiment. - Make sure that none of the compound is accidentally spilled out. - Use larger quantities so to reduce the error in their recording ?? ?? ?? ?? ...read more.

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