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Electrochemical Cell

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Introduction

IB Chemistry HL Yr. 2 Ms. Rachel 28th Feb, 10 Introduction To investigate the effect of change in temperature of the solutions on the voltage of an electrochemical cell. How does increase in temperature of the electrolytes in en electrochemical cell affect the voltage? An electrochemical cell produces electrical energy from chemical energy, where the chemical energy comes from the reactions in the cell. An electrochemical cell consists of two half-cells. Each half-cell consists of an electrode, and an electrolyte (salt solution). A salt bridge is used that connects the two solutions in the containers to allow flow of ions so there is no charge build up in either solution. Charge build-up would shift the equilibrium and the reaction would cease. When the two half cells, consisting of a metal electrode and a conducting solution are connected with an external wire, the strongest oxidizing agent will undergo a reduction in one half cell and the strongest reducing agent will undergo an oxidation in the other half cell. ...read more.

Middle

Materials required * Copper strip, 6cm x 1cm * Zinc strip, 6cm x 1cm * CuSO4 solution, 0.99M � 0.01M * ZnSO4 solution, 0.99M � 0.01M * KNO3 solution, 1.99M � 0.01M * Distilled water, 300mL � 1mL * Beakers (3), 250mL � 50mL * Graduated cylinder (100mL � 1mL) * Digital Voltmeter with crocodile wires * Hot plate * Thermometers (2), � 1�C * Paper strips, 10cm x 1cm * Magnetic stirrer * Rubber gloves * Apron * Safety Goggles Method Method to prepare solutions 1. Concentration required (CuSO4): 0.99M AMU of CuSO4: 159.61 So, 1.00M of CuSO4 has 159.61g of CuSO4 Hence 0.99M has: 159.61 x 0.99 = 158.01g � 0.01g Mix 158.01g � 0.01g of CuSO4 in 100mL of distilled water. Use a magnetic stirrer if necessary ==> Use 100mL � 1mL of 0.99M � 0.01M of CuSO4 solution. 2. Concentration required (ZnSO4): 0.99M AMU of ZnSO4: 161.44 So, 1.00M of CuSO4 has 161.44g of ZnSO4 Hence 0.99M has: 161.44 x 0.99 = 159.83g � 0.01g Mix 159.83g � 0.01g of ZnSO4 in 100mL of distilled water. ...read more.

Conclusion

Raw Data Table Volume of each electrolyte (mL � 1mL) Length of salt bridge (cm � 0.01 cm) Length of each electrode (cm � 0.01 cm) 100 16.00 6.00 Temperature (�C) Voltage (V) � 0.001 V Trial 1 Trial 2 Trial 3 23 1.028 1.029 1.028 30 1.036 1.038 1.039 40 1.048 1.050 1.048 50 1.057 1.059 1.057 60 1.069 1.067 1.067 70 1.073 1.073 1.070 80 1.076 1.074 1.075 90 1.081 1.079 1.078 Processed Data Temperature (�C) � 1 �C Average Voltage (V) 23 1.028 � 0.001 30 1.038 � 0.002 40 1.049 � 0.001 50 1.057 � 0.001 60 1.068 � 0.001 70 1.072 � 0.002 80 1.075 � 0.001 90 1.079 � 0.002 Data Processing Note: For the sample calculation below, data point 2 has been used (30�C � 1 �C). Average Voltage = Trial 1 + Trial 2 + Trial 3 3 = 1.036 + 1.038 + 1.039 3 = 1.0376 = 1.038 V Uncertainty of Average Voltage = Highest trial value - Lowest trial value 2 = 1.039 - 1.036 2 = 0.0015 = 0.002 V = 1.038 V � 0.002 V Graph Conclusion Evaluation Self Improvements ...read more.

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