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Enthalpy of Neutralisation Between HCl and NaOH

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Introduction

Year 12 Chemistry Enthalpy of Neutralisation Internal Assessment Raw Data Table: What I measured Value (unit) Uncertainty Volume of HCl 20cm3 ±1 cm3 Volume of NaOH 20cm3 ±1 cm3 Concentration of HCl 1.00 mol dm-3 Concentration of NaOH 1.00 mol dm-3 Initial Temperature of HCl 21.3 ËC ±0.005 ËC Initial Temperature of NaOH 21.3 ËC ±0.005 ËC Table displaying the relationship between temperature and time after 20cm3 of an HCl solution is combined with 20cm3 of a NaOH solution Time (seconds) Temperature (ËC) 1 21.3 2 21.3 3 22.1 4 24.1 5 25.5 6 26.3 7 26.7 8 26.9 9 27.1 10 27.1 11 27.2 12 27.3 13 27.4 14 27.5 15 27.5 16 27.5 17 27.4 18 27.4 19 27.3 20 27.3 Qualitative: * The temperature probe often touched the bottom of the cup. * Not all the liquid was poured out of the measuring cylinder * The measuring cylinder had to been rinsed before each measurement meaning it may have been contaminated. * The two reactants are both clear liquids and when mixed, the result is also a clear liquid. ...read more.

Middle

Therefore, there must also be some experimental error present also. This experimental error can be determined as a percentage through the following formula: In this case, this is written as: This experimental error is also very large, but in a similar order of magnitude as the systematic error, which was very large for a systematic error. Therefore, it is difficult to determine with certainty where most of the error came from (either from systematic error or experimental error), but considering the range of likely reasons for experimental error to be present, it is more likely that experimental error, not systematic error, is most to blame for the deviation from the literature value. Evaluation: The large random error in this experiment was die the large number of operations needed to determine the ?H value in this experiment therefore an increased level of accuracy in the equipment would have increased our ability to determine a more accurate result. Increasing accuracy in equipment would have aided the experiment although the literature value was still outside the range of random error. ...read more.

Conclusion

An improvement to this could be to find a new way of mixing together the two solutions effectively, such as for them to be shaken in an airtight container, or stirred more smoothly. As the two reactant solutions were clear and that the product solution with a salt dissolved in it was also clear, then it is impossible to tell using the naked eye whether all of the NaOH or HCl had undergone the neutralization process, as no colour change would indicate that it had. Therefore, it is possible that not all of the NaOH and HCl had reacted with one another, and therefore had not released the heat energy we were expected to read. This would give us a lower value of ?T than we should have received, which in turn would give us a value of ?H that is lower than the literature value. This is difficult to improve upon, as adding indicator solution may contaminate the experiment. However, adding a pH indicator could show if there were areas in the container which was slightly acidic (and therefore high in unreacted HCl) or slightly alkaline (and therefore high in unreacted NaOH). A pH probe may also be used to tell us the same thing. ...read more.

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