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Experiment to investigate the effect of concentration of electrolyte on the current of voltaic cell

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Introduction

Experiment to investigate the effect of concentration of electrolyte on the current of voltaic cell Aim The aim is to identify the relationship between the concentration of H2SO4 solution and the current of Cu-Zn voltaic cell. Hypothesis My hypothesis is that the greater the concentration of sulfuric acid the bigger the current of the voltaic cell. In a voltaic cell, chemical energy is concerted to electrical though the oxidation and reduction happen on the electrodes. Current will not flow through pure water. There must be electrolytes dissolved in it before electricity can pass through it. When the concentration of sulfuric acid is increased, the number of ions is increased. There will be more ion carrying electric charge. Then, current is increased. Introduction and Background This is the Cu-Zn voltaic cell used in the experiment. Zinc has higher reactivity and it is more likely to loss electrons. Thus, electrons flow from Zn electrode to Cu electrode. Copper stripe is the positive electrode. Zinc stripe is the negative electrode. ...read more.

Middle

4. When you first out the electrodes in the electrolyte, the pointer of ammeter will wave violently. After some time, record the number ampere before the pointer start falling to the original point. 5. Repeat step 1 to 4 for tree time. 6. Repeat step 1 to 5 with more diluted sulfuric acid. Control the total 40mL volume of solution. Increase the volume of water and reduce the volume of original 9molL-1 H2SO4. Rough Collected Data Quantitative observations: Concentration of H2SO4 solution: 9molL-1 Volume of H2SO4: 40mL The solutions were supplied by the teacher with the given error of 1. A cylinder was used to deliver the solutions; hence the error was estimated at 0.2 cm3. Volume of H2SO4( Volume of H2O( Volume of diluted H2SO4 1 5 35 40 2 4 36 40 3 3 37 40 4 2 38 40 5 1 39 40 Concentration of diluted H2SO4(molL-1) 1 1.125 2 0.900 3 0.675 4 0.450 5 0.023 electronic current (A)(0.015A) Average electronic current (A)(0.015A) 1 0.21 0.22 0.22 0.217 2 0.18 0.18 0.18 0.180 3 0.14 0.15 0.14 0.143 4 0.12 0.12 0.12 0.120 5 0.11 0.09 0.11 0.103 Concentration of diluted H2SO4 Electronic Current (A)(0.015A) ...read more.

Conclusion

There are a number of changes which can help to improve my experiment and makes the results more reliable. For example, the ammeter I used in this experiment is not so accurate. A better machine with smaller uncertainty can make the results more reliable. When water and sulfuric acid solution are added together, heat is released. It may be better to measure the temperature of the mixed solution and waiting for the temperature to fall to the room temperature. Then the results will be more accurate. The copper and zinc stripes are not pure enough. Impurity in the stripes may consume some of the current of the voltaic cell. The result will be less than what it should be. Purer stripes can improve the experiment results. During the experiment, pungent smell is released. It is because that some acid mist came out with the hydrogen gas. There may be some toxic substance in the mist. To improve this situation, a porous board wetted by NaCO3 solution should be used to fix the electrodes instead of the cystosepiment. A porous board can let the hydrogen gas come out and basic NaCO3 solution in it can react with the acidic impurities in the gas and reduce the pungent smell. ...read more.

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