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Experiment to investigate the stoichiometry of the reaction between copper metal and aqueous silver ions.

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Introduction

Copper/Silver Reaction (Stoichiometry) Jason Jie Fong Mr Raj Partners: Kevin Aim To investigate the stoichiometry of the reaction between copper metal and aqueous silver ions. Cu (s) + Ag+ (aq) Cu+2 (aq) + Ag (s) Equipment 250 mL beaker 20 cm copper wire Oven (for drying) Sandpaper Wash bottle 100g 0.1M silver nitrate solution Watch glass 100 mL measuring cylinder ( 1 mL) Safety goggles Rubber gloves Weighing scales Tweezers Safety Precautions: Wear safety goggles at all times. Avoid contact with silver nitrate since it may stain skin and clothing. Method 1) Weigh the 250 mL beaker. 2) Put 100mL of the silver nitrate into the beaker. 3) Wind a 20cm length of Cu wire into an open coil leaving a few cm to act as a handle. 4) Weigh the Cu accurately and then suspend it in the beaker of AgNO3 5) Observe the changes over the next five minutes, then cover the beaker with a watch glass, label the beaker and leave for three days. ...read more.

Middle

Data Processing: Error Calculations: Copper used= Mass of copper before immersion in solution - Mass of copper at the close of the experiment= 0.44g - 0.12g= (0.01/0.44 + 0.01/0.12) � 100 0.32g = +10.6% Mass of Silver (Actual Yield) = Mass of beaker and silver - Mass of Beaker= 117.80g - 116.79g = (0.01/117.80 + 0.01/116.79) � 100 1.01g = +0.0171% For the reaction Cu (s) +2Ag+ (aq) Cu+2 (aq) + 2Ag (s) 0.32g Copper � 63.55g mol-1 = 0.00504 moles (3sf) For every mole of copper there is two moles of silver 0.00504 moles copper � 2 = 0.0101 moles silver (3sf) 0.0101 moles silver � 107.87 g mol-1= 1.08g silver (3sf) Therefore the theoretical yield of silver is 1.09g (3sf). Percentage Yield= (Actual Yield � Theoretical Yield) � 100= (1.01�1.09) � 100= 93.0% (3sf) Therefore the percentage yield is 93.0% (3sf). Conclusion The copper reacted with the silver nitrate to form copper nitrate and a coating on the outside of the copper. ...read more.

Conclusion

This can be avoided by using a measuring cylinder to accurately measure the amount of substance being poured into the beaker. Error Why it's an error Possible improvement Copper could react with other items in its surroundings Copper not involved in the reaction is considered as having participated in the reaction Ensuring the copper is sanded perfectly before being placed inside the beaker, and ensuring the silver nitrate is purely silver nitrate- and water, if the silver nitrate is diluted. Some of the silver nitrate will not have reacted with the copper The silver nitrate that did not react will have been recorded as having reacted. Add the silver nitrate 10mLs at a time and rubbing the silver crystals that form on the copper off every time and collect the crystals, until all of the copper reacted. Then record the amount of silver nitrate added to the copper. The volume of silver nitrate was measured using the marks on the beaker. This systematic error could increase the uncertainty and thus increase the error percentage. Use a measuring cylinder to accurately measure the amount of substance being poured into the beaker. ...read more.

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