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Factors of a reaction lab

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Introduction

Design Question How will altering the concentration of HCl affect the rate of the following reaction: Zn (s) + HCl (aq) ---> ZnCl (aq) + H2 (g) Hypothesis According to the collision theory, the rate of a reaction depends on the frequency of collisions between reacting particles. The more frequent the collisions, the faster the rate of the reaction. However, in order for the collisions to be effective, the particles must collide with sufficient energy (activation energy). Furthermore, the particles must collide with the proper orientation. The aim of this lab is to increase how often collisions occur. Theoretically, we should be able to achieve this by increasing the HCl concentration. However, we will instead decrease the HCl concentration just because it's easier by diluting it with water. We thus predict that by decreasing the HCl concentration, it should take longer for the reaction to produce the predetermined amounts of hydrogen gas that we are observing. Variables Independent- the concentration of HCl Dependent- the rate of the reaction Controlled- Size of test tube Syringe type Timer Mass of Zn Volume of HCl Size of the stopper Controlling ...read more.

Middle

294 160 5 366 182 Hydrochloric acid, 0.8 mol dm-3 Time taken for corresponding volume of hydrogen gas to be produced/s Volume of hydrogen gas produced/cm3 Trial 1 Trial 2 1 171 103 2 334 118 3 504 156 4 674 205 5 862 243 Hydrochloric acid, 0.6 mol dm-3 Time taken for corresponding volume of hydrogen gas to be produced/s Volume of hydrogen gas produced/cm3 Trial 1 Trial 2 1 155 249 2 165 253 3 206 278 4 268 351 5 316 449 Observations - Zn clumps together at bottom of test tube - Bubbles are produced - No longer powder - Nothing happens for a while and then all of a sudden there's like this outward burst of energy which results in small intervals btw the given volumes produced Data Processing Overview I will first determine the average time it took for the different HCl concentration to react and produce the given volumes of hydrogen gas. Next I will calculate the standard deviation for each set of trials to determine the accuracy of the average. Finally, I will graph the average times using a scatter. ...read more.

Conclusion

Maybe use a straw or something like that to make sure the Zn gets to the bottom of the test tube. And like blow into the straw (softly!) to ensure that none of the Zn gets stuck to the inside of the straw. We didn't use the same syringe for all the trials because we were trying to get all the trials in on the same day. Use the same syringe for all trials. We didn't get all the trials in on the same day. I think it took us three classes. As a result, each day we were working in different room temperatures. Organize ourselves better so that we get all the trials in on the same day. We couldn't dry the test tube correctly. Each time we dried it there was still water at the bottom of the tube. Maybe like attach a paper towel to a stirrer and swap it around inside the test tube to dry it out. Zn is impure. As a result, the HCl acid could be reacting as well with whatever impurities present are thus slowing down the reaction, perhaps. Obtain pure Zn, if possible. ?? ?? ?? ?? ...read more.

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