• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

flame test lab

Extracts from this document...


Aim The aim of the experiment is to give a qualitative introduction to the spectra emitted by some s-block elements when their atoms are excited by heating samples in a Bunsen flame. Theory "The energy levels in atoms and ions are the key to the production and detection of light. Energy levels or "shells"exist for electrons in atoms and molecules. The colors of dyes and other compounds results from electron jumps between these shells or levels. The colors of fireworks result from jumps of electrons from one shell to another. Observations of light emitted by the elements is also evidence for the existence of shells, subshsells and energy levels. The kinds of light that interact with atoms indicate the energy differences between shells and energy levels in the quantum theory model of the atom. Typically the valence electrons are the ones involved in these jumps. Atoms have two kinds of states; a ground state and an excited state. The ground state is the state in which the electrons in the atom are in their lowest energy levels possible (atoms naturally are in the ground state). This means the electrons have the lowest possible values for "n" the principal quantum number. Specific quantized amounts of energy are needed to excite an electron in an atom and produce an excited state. ...read more.


Wear your googles, gloves and gown before start working 2. Swich on the lamp and look at the bulb through the hand spectroscope. Look for a series of colours, one running into the next. This is the continuous spectrum. 3. Hold the spectroscope up to a window which does not face the sun. This could result in permament damage to your eyes. You should see the continuous spectrum of visible light. 4. Make sure your flame test wire is clean. 5. Prepare needed substances. 6. Light the Bunsen burner. 7. Dip the flame test wire into the hydrochloric acid and next take some strontium chloride on it and put it into Bunsen fire. Watch the colour of the flame. Your partner should be watching the flame through the hand spectroscope. Look for the brightly coloured lines. There are several lines for each element and it will be propably not possible to get them all into view at once. 8. Dip the flame test wire again into the hydrochloric acid to clean it from the substance. 9. Repeat steps 4-8 with calcium chloride (CaCl2), sodium chloride (NaCl), potassium chloride (KCl), CuSO4 x 5H2O and lithium chloride (LiCl) Safety guidelines !!! - Work areas should be arranged so that a person does not need to travel through a high-hazard area while attempting to exit the laboratory during an emergency. ...read more.


- 405 nm, 450 nm, 480 nm, green - 550 nm, red - 650 nm), more than 12 lines for calcium chloride (blue - 420 nm, 430 nm, 450 nm, 480 nm, 500 nm, 520 nm, green - 540nm, 570nm, yellow - 600 nm, orange - 630 nm, red - 675 nm, 680 nm), one line for sodium chloride (yellow - 600 nm), 6 lines for CuSO4 x 5H2O (blue - 455 nm, 510 nm, green - 520 nm, 530 nm, 575 nm and yellow - 590 nm) and 7 lines for potassium chloride (blue - 450 nm, 465 nm, 480 nm, 485 nm, 505 nm, green - 535 nm and yellow - 590 nm). The results of the experiment weren't the same. It might be because of the fact we saw also the spectrum of electric lamps which were switched on and the shadows of other people working at the labolatory. Ways of improving the results: - less shadows of other people - more concentration during the experiment - use of more modern equipment - looking throug the spectroscope in the dark room in order to avoid seeing the electric lamp's light spectrum - the experiment should be repeated to get some more reliable results Sources - "Chemistry for the IB Diploma (standard and higher level)" by Geoff Neuss - "Chemistry" (second edition) by John Green and Sandru Damji - http://webmineral.com/help/FlameTest.shtml - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flame_test - http://www.800mainstreet.com/spect/emission-flame-exp.html ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our International Baccalaureate Chemistry section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related International Baccalaureate Chemistry essays

  1. Lab Report - Flame Test

    If acid should get into your eyes, begin flushing with water immediately and continue doing so for at least 20 minutes. If there is an eye wash fountain equipped with continuously running water in the laboratory, use it. If acid is spilled on the laboratory bench or on the floor,

  2. Chemistry Laboratory Report --- Classification of Chemical Substances

    pure energy that can interact with the orbital electrons of elements and molecules, kicking them up into higher more energetic orbits. In this case, the energy emitted is light energy. This reflection of light results in the luster property of metals.

  1. Identification of Elements: Flame Test

    nitrate Cu(No3)2 green, yellow sodium chloride NaCl orange potassium chloride KCl pink, orange sodium bicarbonate NaHCO3 orange strontium chloride SrCl2 red unknown A / orange unknown B / pink, orange unknown C / red, orange Analysis: To determine the unknown chemicals, two major characteristics are used.

  2. IB questions and answers on Atomic Theory

    x 100 = 80.22% (10 x 0.1978) + (11 x 0.8022) = 10.80 12. Lithium occurs naturally as two isotopes, 6Li and 7Li. The relative atomic mass of lithium is 6.941 g/mol. Determine the percent abundance of each of lithium's isotopes. 6x + 7(1-x) = 6.941 6x +7 - 7x = 6.941 7 - 1x = 6.941

  1. IB chemistry revision notes

    * Rules for working out the structure: 1. Identify the central atom. 2. Work out how many electrons there are in the central atom.\ 3. Count the number of atoms bonded to the central atom ad then add that number to the number of valence electrons.

  2. Change of Potential Difference in Voltaic Cells Lab Report

    It has two main sections: the copper sulfate solution's concentrations (M) and the experimental voltage (the experiment's +results).Another similar data table can be developed for the second and third trials of the experiment. Trial 1 Trial 2 Trial 3 Copper Sulfate Concentrations (M)

  1. AIM To make samples of the less common oxidation states of vanadium with different ...

    The product was then boiled to remove excess sulphur dioxide and then was added by the same volume of vanadium(II) solution. The result was recorded. 7. 2 ml of potassium iodide was added into other test tube from step 2. After that, potassium thiosulphate was added. The result was recorded.

  2. Research question: how to convert NaOH to NaCl by two different routes , and ...

    Number of moles of NaOH solution = concentration x n = 2.0 x = 0.10 mol M (NaOH) = 22.99 + 16.00 + 1.01 = 40.0 g mol -1 n = which implies that m = n x M m(NaOH)

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work